An Exploration of Classroom-related Sources of Foreign Language Speaking Anxiety of Pakistani University Students
Foreign language anxiety is a distinct variable particular to language learning and it has debilitative effects on the learning and production of language. The current study aims to explore the perspectives of Pakistani postgraduate non-major English language students specifically regarding classroom-related factors that may contribute to their speaking anxiety (SA). A questionnaire was administered to 170 students and aiming to find a more comprehensive explanation of their SA, 20 students were interviewed. Quantitative data were analyzed through SPSS while exploratory content analysis was followed to analyze the qualitative data. Findings highlight several classroom-related sources of SA namely; a formal classroom environment, oral tests, fear of negative evaluation, large classrooms, fear of being put on the spot, short time granted to formulate answers, and unfamiliarity among classmates. The last four sources of SA have not been mentioned earlier in the field of SA. Implications and recommendations are offered for language teachers and material designers. Finally, recommendations for future studies are given.