sjesr 2020-09-01T16:51:13+00:00 Muhammad Idrees Open Journal Systems <p><iframe src="" width="100%" height="3050"> </iframe></p> Rasch Calibration of Achievement Test: An Application of Item Response Theory 2020-08-12T06:52:36+00:00 Zunaira Fatima Syeda Uzma Shahzadi Ghazanfar Ali <p><em>Test construction is a fundamental constituent in the field of education. Many researches are being conducted in the field of testing across the academic world. Development of Achievement tests and standardization of achievement tests is a prime area research for academic researchers. In continuous assessment, teachers develop tests to measure students’ achievement through the duration of course or study. The main objective of this study was the development of an objective type test in the subject of Measurement and Assessment in Education. Initially, the test comprised 60 items. Test reliability through Cronbach Alpha was 0.77. The test was administered to 385 students enrolled in the department of Education. A convenient sampling technique was used to select the sample. Item analysis was conducted using item response theory (IRT). </em><em>This study suggests that a parallel form test with more test items and more syllabus coverage might be constructed. Tests might be administered in teacher education departments of all public sector universities. Test responses might be used to diagnose learning difficulties in the subject of measurement and assessment. The study recommended that test construction theories might be the part of course outlines.</em></p> 2020-07-11T05:20:18+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Problems in Grammatical Structure: A Case Study of B.Ed. Student at the Education Department 2020-08-12T06:52:39+00:00 Dr. Gulzar Ahmed Dr. Syed Shafqat Ali Shah Dr. Muhammad Nisar <p><em>English grammar is how words in the English language are translated into text. This includes the structure of words, phrases, clauses, and phrases, up to and including full-text structure. The main objective of the authors is to discover the difficulties of grammatical structures for students at the Department of Teacher Education. Shikarpur Shaikh Ayaz University. The students of B.Ed. undergraduate level of education department was selected as a data population. The fifty students were randomly selected from the education department. There is quantitative research underway. The researchers used a testing tool for a questionnaire. The student's collected data were analyzed by SPSS-Descriptive statistics.&nbsp; Some of the challenges and problems are facing during the English Grammar lesson of B.Ed. students. The students have used the conditional verb and also the proper use of a phrasal verb that is one of the problems with students. The use of an article is also one of the fundamental problems for undergraduate students. Teachers should make it possible for students to practice these materials either through activity-based teaching or through the CLT method so that they can be more attentive to EFL learning and not focus on translation alone.</em></p> 2020-07-11T05:13:48+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Doctoral Students’ Transition to the Academic Culture of Foreign Universities: Setting the Stage for PhD 2020-08-12T06:52:41+00:00 Dr. Syed Abdul Waheed <p><em>International doctoral students’ journey towards their PhD studies begins with finding an appropriate research supervisor and making a transition to the academic environment in a foreign university. The successful academic transition eventually determines the success of doctoral students. The present study aims to examine doctoral students’ experiences of searching for a supervisor, seeking their colleagues’ support for integration into the university and to describe their experiences of shifting to a relatively different field of study. Thirteen Pakistani doctoral students were purposively selected to explore their lived experiences of making the transition to Austrian universities. The Phenomenological research approach guided the present study. The data collected through interviewing the participants was thematically analyzed that lead to the emergence of the themes; finding a supportive supervisor, developing a research proposal, support for transition and transition to a different field. The themes revealed that it was hard and by chance to get a supportive supervisor while being in another country. Doctoral students’ colleagues supported them to explore the institutional environment that helped them integrate into the university. Nevertheless, shifting to a relatively different field of research was challenging and slowed down the process of transition. The research has implications for prospective doctoral students for adequate preparation before entering into a foreign university.</em></p> 2020-07-11T05:05:05+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr National Professional Standard and Teachers’ Performance: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Punjab 2020-08-12T06:52:44+00:00 Sarfraz Ahmad Dr. Ziarab Mahmood Dr. Muhammad Ishaq <p><em>The purpose of this study was to analyze performance of teachers of public sector on the base of code of conduct. The objectives of the study were to analyze knowledge, disposition and performance of secondary school teachers of code of conduct as per National Professional Standards i.e code of conduct. It was proposed that teachers of selected schools have significant level of knowledge, disposition &amp; performance of code of conduct. Out of 19,265 secondary school teachers of province Punjab, 401 teachers were selected randomly. Out of 3,601 headmasters of secondary schools 222 headmasters were selected randomly. Two questionnaires were used for collection of data from selected secondary school teachers &amp; headmasters of secondary schools. Data was collected from selected districts with the help of association of scholars. Data was analyzed by applying Chi-Square with SPSS software. Findings showed that secondary schools teachers have adequate knowledge, disposition and performance about code of conduct but they don’t keep themselves update professionally by recent educational activities. School education department should launch training programs about knowledge, teachers should improve disposition and perform their duties well regarding National Professional Standards (NPS) i.e code of conduct.</em></p> 2020-07-11T04:59:48+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Pandemic Preparedness and Techno Stress among Faculty of DAIs in Covid-19 2020-08-12T06:52:47+00:00 Mahwish Zeeshan Dr. Abid Ghafoor Chaudhry Shaheer Ellahi Khan <p><em>Amid COVID-19 pandemic in Pakistan, the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan announced the closure of all public and private universities and Higher Education Institutes from mid of March 2020. The paper highlights the issues faced by the university faculty in terms of techno-stress due to a lack of pandemic preparedness. The data gathered for this research is qualitative using the exploratory methodology. The methods of the study are In-depth interviews and FGDs. Interview guide and FGD Checklist are tools employed to gather data from the faculty of sixteen Pakistani universities which is sorted thematically and illustrated through descriptive statistics. The findings of the study suggest that the global pandemic has seriously affected the higher education sector in Pakistan. The private universities and the heavily funded public universities have taken off in a bullish mode. However, the public sector universities are coping up in a bearish trend. The faculty's response also corresponds with the transition to online teaching. Besides the university's efforts to ease out learning through an online interface, the majority of the faculty is feeling overburdened with additional responsibilities about online teaching. The study highlights the gap between policymaking and the on-ground situation of the universities in terms of online readiness.</em></p> 2020-07-11T04:51:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr An Analysis of Medium of Instruction Policies in the Education System of Pakistan with Specific Reference to English Medium Education 2020-08-12T06:52:49+00:00 Sadia Asif Imran Afzal Rahat Bashir <p><em>A critical examination of the trends, issues, and challenges in policy and practice of English language education in Pakistan is the main concern of this paper. This is done first by describing the practice of teaching English in varied instructional situations. Second, the paper historically reviews the language education policies since Pakistan’s independence in 1947. Third, the consequences of using English as the medium of instruction are discussed. A longitudinal large scale study is done to highlight the fact that English as medium of instruction at primary school level can distort the teaching and learning activities for students and teachers in rural areas of Pakistan and student drop-out rate can even get higher in those areas. The data was collected from the interviews of twenty teachers working in government and semi government schools at primary level. Based on the information obtained from the target participants, teaching at the same level but in different schools, the author argues that mother tongue education at the primary level is the most appropriate method to enhance the educational performance of students and a positive approach to bilingual education must be taken to resolve the challenges associated with the medium of instruction policies in the education system of Pakistan. Moreover, the data also shows that adopting English as a medium of instruction in Public schools may lead to low motivation level among students and it can hinder the development of English as a second language among learners. Furthermore, a difference in home language and school language may also hamper development and concepts formation in students at school level. Therefore, it is recommended that before implementing any language as medium of instruction at school level, one must review the history of Pakistani education system and must keep in mind the linguistic differences of the society and unavailability of resources is also a major hindrance in implementation of any language policy. &nbsp;The results of this study confirm that the pedagogical effectiveness could only be achieved through the mother tongue and provides clear evidence for the&nbsp;usage of native languages as a medium of education in schools.</em></p> 2020-07-11T04:43:17+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Tracing the Standards of Peace Education: Reflections from English language Curriculum 2020-08-12T06:52:52+00:00 Samra Bashir Dr. Muhammad Amin Humera Amin <p><em>Contemporary world, is facing serious issues of peace e.g. social injustice, gender discrimination and violation of human rights, narrow-mindedness towards other’s cultures, religious conflicts, suppressing the women, inhumane handling of minorities and lake of interest in environmental sustainability. Consistency in this situation arises the need to address these issues through education to move forward towards peace and stability. This research analyzed the curriculum and textbooks of English of Punjab Textbook Board to determine whether this curriculum impending the standards of peace education or not. This qualitative study followed the curriculum analysis framework suggested by Levander &amp; Mikkola, in 2009. The analysis of English language curriculum was conducted in two stages. First stage that is called Concept Map Framework (CFM) was performed to enlist features of peace education found in the objectives and textbooks of English curriculum. The second stage of analysis; Dimensional Description Framework (DDF) was conducted to determine the depth or quality of description that was enlisted at first stage. The findings of the study highlights that the objectives of curriculum of English give sufficient coverage to the features of peace. Text books of English for elementary grades elaborates some features of peace education i.e. “love for humanity, tolerance, brotherhood, human values, justice, gender equality”. The depth or quality of description remained brief for most of features of peace education. This situation is not presenting a satisfactory picture of existence of features of peace education in the textbooks of English language. Curriculum of English language needs to incorporate all features of peace education in balance form at all grades of elementary.</em></p> 2020-07-11T04:32:03+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Perception of the Parents, Physiotherapists and Allied Health Professionals about the Role of Physiotherapy in the Rehabilitation of the Children with Cerebral Palsy - A Case Study of District Bhakkar 2020-09-01T16:51:13+00:00 Shazia Haq Tahir Nazeer Muhammad Zia ul Haq <p><em>Cerebral palsy (CP) is known as the main developmental disability among infants and children. The brain injury is associated with pre or postnatal period. A physiotherapy is an effective tool of rehabilitation and restoration of the children with CP. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Objectives:</em></strong><em> The main purpose of the study was to evaluate the role of physiotherapy in the rehabilitation of the CP children. The main intention of this study was to examine the perception of parents and health professionals about the role of physiotherapy in the rehabilitation process of CP children</em></p> <p><strong><em>Methods:</em></strong><em> This study design is cross sectional and survey method was adopted and purposive sampling method was used for data collection. A Likert scale questionnaire was adopted for data collection from (n = 158) parents, (n = 14) allied health professionals, and (n = 3) physiotherapists of Bhakkar. It was hypothesized that physiotherapy has a significant role in the rehabilitation of CP children. An independent t-test and one-way ANOVA was applied for statistical analysis. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Results and Conclusions:</em></strong><em> Results showed that physiotherapy plays a significant role in the rehabilitation (P &lt; .00), and postural control (P &lt;. 01) of CP children. The perception of the physiotherapists and allied health professionals were the same regarding the role of physiotherapy in the rehabilitation (P &lt;. 00), function independent and social participation (p &lt; .00), postural control (P &lt; .00) and motor function (P &lt; .02) of the CP children. On the other hand, it was also concluded the regular physiotherapy increases rehabilitation process of CP children. The physiotherapists and allied health professional were satisfied with rehabilitation process. In contrast, the perception of parents was unsatisfactory because they desire the rehabilitate procedure should be shorter. It is suggested that physiotherapists and allied health professionals may educate the parents about the rehabilitation procedure.</em></p> 2020-07-11T04:18:55+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr An Analysis of Various Factors having Direct or Indirect Impacts on Pashtun Nationalism 2020-07-02T18:47:04+00:00 Hamida Bibi Surat Khan <p><em>Every society of the world is stereotype due to the various groups that exist inside the country. Same is the case with Pakistan which consists of various sub-national groups, among them one is the Pashtun ethnic group (society) which always tilted towards religion. Stereotype societies have sometimesgerms of truth but in partial. The main issue is that the importance of the survival of a specific peculiarity connected with a community is voluntarily forgotten in favour of legends mimicry. The scholars admit the presence of religious intolerance among the Pashtun community but the scholars also challenge that although the Pashtun have been hugging religion since fourteen hundred years but has never been overpowered by extremism that exists to this day. It also proves that the main objectives of religious extremism and militancy were to curtail the culture and freedom of its traditions</em>. <em>There are serious grievances of Pashtun community regarding the state policy for this region. The Pashtun populated areas are always used for strategic depth policy.</em></p> 2020-07-02T16:30:02+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Comparative Frame Analysis of Coverage of Kashmir Conflict in Indian and Pakistani Newspapers from War/Peace Journalism Perspective 2020-07-02T18:47:06+00:00 Dr. Bakht Rawan Syed Inam ur Rahman <p><em>The study analyzes press coverage of Kashmir conflict in Indian and Pakistani leading English newspapers from war/peace journalism perspective. The results show that print media of both the countries were more war-oriented than peace. They were following respective national policies in reporting the Kashmir conflict. War journalism indicators in the coverage of the conflict had outnumbered the peace-journalism indicators. The results confirm previous research studies’ findings regarding the role (negative) of national media in de-escalation of inter-state conflicts. It indicates that conventional media prioritizes coverage of possible conflict scenario in war frames and ignores peace approaches and hence fuels the conflicts further.</em></p> 2020-06-28T13:43:34+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Relationship between Parental Involvement, Students’ Performance Goal Orientation and Academic Achievement at Elementary Level 2020-07-02T18:47:08+00:00 Dr. Sadaf Jabeen Dr. Mubashira Khalid Dr. Tahira Kalsoom <p><em>The study aims to explore association between parental involvement and its contribution in students’ performance goal orientation and academic achievement during their elementary schooling. The study adopted correlational design. Nine (04 boys and 05 girls) Middle/Elementary schools were randomly selected from 233 (140 girls and, 93 boys) Middle/ Elementary schools of Lahore. 324 participants (180 girls and 144 boys) from grade 6 were conveniently selected from these randomly selected 09 public Middle/elementary schools. 324 parents (mother/father) of above mentioned students were also included in this Study. Two instruments, Student Performance Goal Orientation (SPGO) and Parental Involvement Scale (PIS) were used as research instruments. It was quantitative study based on descriptive research. Survey method was used for data collection. The study found positive association between parental involvement and students’ learning outcomes achievement. Positive association between students’ performance goal orientation and students’ learning achievement was also found. It was observed that parents can increase the students’ motivation level and help them for their achievements. More than half of the students were of the views that parental involvement enhances the student’s learning achievement.</em></p> 2020-06-25T09:19:08+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Effect of Molesting Behavior of Male Athletes on Participation and Motivation of Female Athletes at Public Sector Universities of Sindh Province 2020-07-02T18:47:10+00:00 Dr. Shireen Bhatti Dr. Salah Udin Khan Saddam Akbar <p><em>The main objectives of study was to determine effect of molesting behavior of male athletes in the perspective of participation of the female athletes and effect of molesting behavior of male athletes on the motivation of female athletes at public universities in Sindh province. The study was descriptive cross sectional .The Purposive sampling method was employed for the collection of the data. Female athletes who competed at intercollegiate, intervarsity, provincial and national level of public universities of Sindh province were subject of this study. The self-developed questionnaire was administrated for data collection. There were 85 female athletes from twenty public universities who participated in present study. The findings revealed that there is negative significant effect of molesting behavior of male athletes on motivation and participation of female athletes at public universities of Sindh. The result revealed declining of level of motivation, impairment of performance, restriction or withdrawal from participation or pursuing sports career and confinement to home due to feeling of insecurity due to exposed rate of sexual molesting behavior of male athletes.</em></p> 2020-06-25T08:43:54+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Developing Linkage Between Universities and Industries in Pakistan 2020-07-02T18:47:12+00:00 Dr. Rabia Khatoon Dr. Faridullah Khan Dr. Muhammad Naseer Ud Din <p><em>This research study was carried out to investigate the facts and establish the present state of the link between Industry and university in Pakistan especially focusing on the present scenario and current operating systems, the research study further examined the main elements impacting and manipulating on the association and potential zones of participation and collaboration. </em>An example of 33 (male 23 and female 10) comprised of Deans and Heads of branches of the colleges and agents of Higher Education Commission<em>). The study revealed that universities and industries had associations and connections through contact workplaces established in (HEC) Higher Education Commission. This office has so many functions like research and development (Research and Development) activities, preparing and manage visiting lectureship, training the staff, and also plan joint actions for educational planning, improvement, and as well as both can work to guide each other. Most definitely, the study further revealed that although there is mutual coordination is found at the national level but unfortunately internationally the same coordination is not found in the same spirit in Pakistan amongst commerce and universities. Moreover, this study also revealed that the coordination among these agencies plays so many functions like personal contacts, guidance function, meetings with each other, educational synergistic preparing programs, Research &amp; Development activities, boards of trustees, panels, courses, and meetings. Thus, the linkages were influenced by numerous components which included government strategy, the executives of the college just as the industry. It was additionally discovered that there were certainly a few issues these included, absence of coordination, scarcity of funds to perform research, lack of enthusiasm on the part of employees, absence of research and development exercises, absence of required capability, conflicting venture of businesses. In addition, there was a scarcity of incubation Center, advance parks, and no basic assessment and check and balance framework. These feasible domains of cooperation covered assurance of licensed innovation, awards, gifts, donations, grants, classes/workshops, and vocation directing cooperative research and development projects, and guidance administrations.</em></p> 2020-06-25T08:36:33+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Exploring Principal’s Leadership Competencies in Academic and Administrative Areas at Govt. Secondary Schools in the Province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 2020-07-02T18:47:13+00:00 Gauhar Zaman Dr. Saqib Shehzad Dr. Hafiz M. Irshadullah <p><em>The present study has been conducted for the identification of Principals leadership’s competencies in academic and administrative areas at the secondary school level of education in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The population of this research study encompasses all 1422 Secondary School Principals. Random sampling technique was applied to select 377 school heads as respondents. To conduct the research study, data was collected through questionnaires, which were further tabulated for analysis through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), and analytical tools of mean, standard deviation, and correlation were used. It is found that the majority of the respondents responded that they had properly managed human resources, and performed academic and administrative activities for the promotion of education in the institutions. It is recommended that the level of leadership in administrative and academic areas be improved with modern approaches.</em></p> 2020-06-25T08:30:13+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Effect of Organizational Climate upon the Job Satisfaction of Instructors Physical Education (IPEs) 2020-07-02T18:47:15+00:00 Muhammad Safdar Luqman Dr. Syed Zia-ul-Islam Ms. Afshan Jabeen <p><em>The main purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of Organizational Climate (OC) on Job Satisfaction (JS) of Instructors Physical Education working in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.&nbsp; For this purpose, a sample of 112 Instructors was selected through a stratified random sampling method. An adapted organizational climate and job satisfaction scale was used for data collection. Pearson product Correlation and regression analysis were applied as inferential statistics with the help of SPSS version 20. The result of the study depicts that organizational climate plays a significant role in the job satisfaction of physical education teachers. A supportive and conducive climate enhances the satisfaction level of physical education teachers.</em></p> 2020-06-25T08:24:57+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr US Withdrawal from Afghanistan: Latest Development and Security Situation (2020) 2020-07-02T18:47:17+00:00 Dr. Muhammad Tariq Dr. Muhammad Rizwan Dr. Manzoor Ahmad <p><em>This paper discusses the US engagement in Afghanistan with particular reference to their withdrawal within a specified period of fourteen months. An agreement has been reached between the US and Taliban on February 29, 2020, at Doha (Qatar) followed by the intra-Afghan talks, which is expected to bring lasting peace and stability in the country. The issues of deadlock between the Afghan government and the Taliban and the pandemic COVID-19 are some of the obstacles in the way of peace. The theory of bargain provides a theoretical framework for the paper. The paper focuses on the post-withdrawal scenario of the US troops and ground realities that will help in prognosticating the future of Afghanistan. Keeping in view the post-US-Taliban agreement, it is difficult to say with certainty that peace and stability may shape the future destiny of the country since more than 1,300 casualties have happened in Afghanistan during the last three months despite the singing of the agreement.</em></p> 2020-06-25T08:15:48+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Teachers’ Perceptions and Practices of Cooperative Learning and Its Influence on Classroom Learning 2020-07-02T18:47:19+00:00 Ms. Fozia Bashir Dr. Muhammad Nisar Mr. Anar Gul <p><em>This study was launched in order to contribute to the body of researchers conducted for investigating teachers’ perceptions and practices about cooperative learning in the classroom. The main objective of this study was to learn about the reasons and perceptions of teachers why they choose to implement or not to implement cooperative learning strategies and how the use of the same influences their class classroom teaching and learning the process. The benefits of the cooperative learning strategies are supported by multiple research studies and conclude in students' intellectual performances along with behavioral improvements. Copious research studies focus on the benefits and methods of the cooperative learning process while lacking teachers’ perceptions and practices of cooperative learning. Evaluation of teachers’ perceptions and practices of cooperative learning in this research study was conducted at the secondary level in district Kohat. The study was descriptive in nature, the questionnaire was developed by the researcher with the kind and immense consultation of the supervisor. The population of the study comprises all the teachers teaching at the Secondary level at district Kohat while 50 teachers were selected using convenient sampling techniques. Keeping in view the cultural restriction only female teachers were taken as the sample of the study. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and central tendencies. Analysis of the quantitative questionnaire showed that most of the teachers like and tend to use cooperative learning strategies. The use of these strategies makes their classes not only conducive to learning and but also develops social skills, self-esteem, cooperation and confidence in students.</em></p> 2020-06-25T08:06:30+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Problems of Working Journalists in Pakistan 2020-07-02T18:47:21+00:00 Dr. Ayesha Qamar Dr. Samia Manzoor Ms. Aqsa Iram Shahzadi <p><em>Journalists around the world are facing difficult situations while pursuing their careers. The situation of Pakistani journalists is not different. Lack of safety and other incentives offered by their organizations are the major problems faced by them. The present study aimed to analyze the problems faced by Pakistani journalists regarding their professional chores. The researchers used Maslow’s hierarchal model and Herzberg’s Motivation Hygiene theory to give a comprehensive picture of working conditions and their effects on journalists’ performance. The quantitative approach was utilized by the researchers in the form of a survey method to highlight the problems faced by journalists. The results showed that the majority of journalists are not satisfied with their current job scenarios. They are confronting too many difficulties including Job security, threats, professional training, tight deadlines, and excessive work hours. Moreover, the respondents unveiled that these problems are adversely affecting their work performance by causing certain physical and mental health issues.</em></p> 2020-06-25T08:02:44+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Preferences of the Teachers in Employing Revised Blooms Taxonomy in their Instructions 2020-07-02T18:47:23+00:00 Dr. Rani Gul Shazia Kanwal Dr. Sadia Suleman Khan <p><em>In the present study teachers’ preferences in their instructional methods were integrated with the revised model of blooms taxonomy to seek out how much they are incorporating the instructional approaches linked with all six domains of revised bloom taxonomy. The study has also sought out the impact of teachers’ qualifications and teaching experiences on teachers’ preferences for these instructional approaches. The findings show that teachers often use the higher-order domain, while other large domains were found on average. The academic qualification and teaching experience have not found significantly correlated with these instructional approaches. The study suggests that teachers spend their time designing teaching methodologies that can promote higher-level thought skills for students, to improve their student learning qualifications. Teachers can adopt methodologies to enable their students to think and discuss the content, encourage discussion, stimulate students to find information themselves, create cause and effect, encourage student opinion, insert several characters and map concepts in the real world. Besides, additional teaching support can also be expected from educational departments and administrations.</em></p> 2020-06-25T07:58:44+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Students’ Outcomes of Implementing Knowledge Exchange Teaching Method in the Classroom: An Action Research 2020-07-02T18:47:25+00:00 Sheraz Khan Dr. Amir Zaman Dr. Abdul Ghaffar <p><em>Knowledge exchange method teaching is a growing trend. The main objective of this work to see the effect of knowledge exchange method teaching in the mathematics classrooms and thus sees its outcomes in terms of learning and classroom environment. Action research was adopted for this study. Four cycles were implemented with the focus of different contents in each cycle. Each cycle lasted for a week. The data was collected through observation and students interview. The results showed significant improvement in their classroom learning environment as well as in learning. The students felt enthusiastic about the new teaching methods and were eager to participate. It is recommended that teachers should be trained to implement the knowledge exchange method in the classroom.</em></p> 2020-06-25T07:52:03+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Development News in Print Media of Pakistan: The Case of Urdu and English Press 2020-07-02T18:47:27+00:00 Dr. Babar Hussain Shah Dr. Malik Adnan Dr. Irem Sultana <p><em>This research was aimed to explore the coverage of development related news in Pakistani print media. To analyze the coverage, two leading newspapers of Pakistan- daily Dawn and daily Jang were selected by the researchers. Both are leading newspapers of Urdu and English language. The study is based on content analysis with a purposive sampling technique. All development news appearing on front, back and inner pages of newspapers were analyzed. The period for selection of news was from November 1<sup>st,</sup> 2018 to December 31<sup>st</sup> 2018. <strong>In this study, all those news are unit of analysis which deal with the core issue of development in any form. </strong>Results indicate that during that period overall 572 news stories appeared in newspapers out of which 271 appeared in Urdu newspapers and 301 appeared in English newspapers. It was explored that most published news was about the infrastructure category of development (20.09%). It was also revealed that the least number of stories (2.75%) appeared on the front pages of the newspapers.&nbsp; It was found that overall 9.09% news stories were accompanied by images. Results indicate that the English press provided more space to development news than Urdu newspapers.</em></p> 2020-06-25T07:49:04+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Effect of Leadership Management and Resource Management on Teacher Satisfaction in Higher Education Institutions: An Empirical Investigation 2020-07-02T18:47:29+00:00 Ms. Humaira Tufail Dr. Faridullah Khan Dr. Muhammad Naseer Ud Din <p><em>The study assesses the effect of leadership management and resource management practices on teacher’s job satisfaction. This study focused on the core activities of the leadership management and resource management and the characteristic which had a direct relation with the quality of the education and satisfying teachers of the university. Using multistage random sampling method, the sample data of 985 teachers was collected from public and private sector higher education institutions of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The researcher has designed the close end questionnaire for data collection. Statistical tool was applied to analyses the data. The descriptive statistics of the study revealed that leadership management and resource management was found to be satisfied among all components. The Pearson correlation revealed that leadership management and resource management have significant relation with faculty satisfaction in HEI.</em></p> 2020-06-25T07:39:11+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Unburdening the Pedagogy of the Oppressed: A Case Study of ELT Classrooms at University Level in South Punjab 2020-07-02T18:47:31+00:00 Dr. Sarwat Jabeen Abdul Rashid Dr. Samia Naz <p><em>Recently, the concept of Critical thinking got much significance in the teaching and learning process. Thinking creatively and critically in the English language beckons our representation in different domains of development as well. The present study is aimed to investigate the on-going teaching-learning process of English Language Teaching at University Level in South Punjab from the perspective of critical thinking. The theoretical insights have been taken from Freire’s Banking concept of education in his seminal work, Pedagogy of the Oppressed (2018). The findings of the study reveal that our ELT classrooms are lacking the creativity and critical thinking at large. Further in our classrooms, the Banking Model of teaching is being practiced where a student remains passive and the teacher is considered as the ultimate source of knowledge. It points out that our teaching and learning process is moving on some faulty lines which need revisions and amendments. It is suggested that the Problem Posing Model of teaching and learning may be adopted in our ELT Classrooms so that our graduates at the university level may think critically and independently.</em></p> 2020-06-25T07:32:33+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Relationship of Organizational Structure, Physical Facilities and Leadership Practices of Principals with School improvement: An Evidence from Pakistan 2020-07-02T18:47:32+00:00 Abdul Malik Dr. Habib Elahi Dr. Syed Afzal Shah <p><em>The present study was focused to know about the relationship of organizational structure, physical facilities, and leadership practices with school improvement. A survey research method was adopted with questionnaires. The sample included 224 principals, 896 senior school teachers from the seven districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.&nbsp; The stratified random sampling technique was used for the selection of participating institutions among 7 divisions of the province. For the collection of research data, the researcher developed the questionnaires. For this instrument, after passing through the pilot testing and experts' opinions, all the instructed improvements and modifications worked out. The analysis of data revealed that there is a positive significant correlation of organizational structure, physical facilities, and leadership practices with school improvement.</em></p> 2020-06-25T07:27:37+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Socio-Economic Impact of Seasonal Employment on the Nomads with Reference to Date’s Fruits: A Case Study of District Khairpur 2020-07-02T18:47:35+00:00 Syed Akram Ali Shah Prof. Dr. Muhammad Saleem Rahpoto Dr. Ghulam Muhammad Mangnejo <p><em>Hunger starvation, natural disasters, droughts and the clan enmities make people to migrate from one region to another region. Also sometimes people migrate as they inherit the habit, of migration. This research paper is aimed to study the socio-economic implication of the seasonal employment in Khairpur in date’s fruit season regarding nomads coming in the season and the implications of the migration on the life of the indigenous people as well as on the nomad’s life. The subject material has been collected through the field survey and the interviews conducted by the stakeholders, like the growers, traders, nomads, and those with whom the nomads interact during their stay in District Khairpur. District Khairpur is situated in Sindh Province of Pakistan is one of the most opulent District, it is embedded with the surface as well as mineral resources. But, its fame is due to date’s fruit which is the major factor of the nomadic flow into this district. Also, the date’s season has proved to be poverty alleviation than any other factor. The research results show that every year nearly 3 million to 3.5 million people come to this district and each year almost 2 Billion Pak Rupees are being taken away to different regions as to be the remittances. Besides, the nomadic flow not only proves to be beneficial for the dates fruit growers but also for the merchants and the vendors who also earn almost double in the season of date’s fruit. Especially the hotels and vegetable shops become almost short of the consumers' goods in the season. Finally, some measures are proposed and a brief conclusion is given herewith. This paper also has analyzed the determinants and the consequences of nomadic migration into District Khairpur.</em></p> 2020-06-25T07:22:31+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr