sjesr 2020-11-04T10:27:35+00:00 Muhammad Idrees Open Journal Systems <p><iframe src="" width="100%" height="3050"> </iframe></p> PAK–US Relations: Paradoxes & Enigmas during War on Terror 2020-10-29T10:10:20+00:00 Rooh ul Amin Dr. Ghulam Muhammad Awan Afzal Mahmood <p><em>Pakistan –USA relations with the punctuated history of over seventy years roller-coaster motion have passed through phases of intense engagement to era of sanctions and betrayal during the Cold war,&nbsp; followed by spells of distrust, suspicions, and discord during the War against Terror. The intensity of close relations of the 50s and 60s shifted from one extreme to that of complete ignorance in the 70s, followed by urgent marrying up during the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and turning in to a most sanctioned Ally after soviet withdrawal.&nbsp; 9/11 served as another anchorage once again for the two old allies; however the warmness of relations remained frequently affected by numerous vexatious irritants thereby eroding mutual trust and War results. </em><em>The discord in bilateral relations was transformed into cooperation by the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the US and Pakistan is listed as a key ally in the war against Afghanistan. Since the commencement of the War against Terror in Afghanistan, the pattern of interstates relations has taken turns with every major event and the changing tones of the last few years indicated that the sky over Pakistan once again seems to be overcast. The rhetoric of "do more" and suspension of all kinds of military and economic aid was a true replica of the past. The backlash of War in Afghanistan appeared with bangs in Pakistan threatening its peace and stability on one hand and polarizing its socio-political fibre of the society on the other. Soon Pakistan's army was left alone by the US and the NATO in its operation against the safe havens of terrorists alongside Durand line with disregard to all of its human and economic cost, suffered as a non-NATO ally. Pakistan's role in the fulfilment of USA interests in Afghanistan is once again signified in the wake of US Withdrawal forces and culmination of promising peace process in Afghanistan. The situation is once against ripe for Pakistan to pursue the USA's objectives and in return seek USA's support in resolving its economic, security, and Kashmir.</em></p> 2020-10-21T06:14:38+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Determining Linguistic and Cultural Diminution: An Analysis of Urbanization and Migration in Pakistan 2020-10-29T10:14:57+00:00 Dr. Muhammad Gulfraz Abbasi Dr. Muhammad Ahsan Dr. Zahoor Hussain <p><em>Urbanization is a worldwide phenomenon in which people move to cities for multiple reasons. Before partition in 1947, the trend of urbanization in Pakistan was not so popular. However, after independence, this trend increased manifold. As urbanization increased, the migrants also started losing their precious native languages and other things related to culture. The present study also focuses on how the in-migration from rural to urban areas in Pakistan has caused a decline in the native language and culture of the migrants belonging to Murree. The sample of 142 people across the gender was selected from Murree, Pakistan. The participants had shifted to urban areas in the past and permanently settled in the city culture where Urdu, the national language was mostly dominant. The detailed open-ended ethnographic interviews of the participants revealed that the whole Pahari culture and Pahari language is under threat as a consequence of this urbanization. </em></p> 2020-10-20T05:14:17+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Speediness of Teenagers: A Comparative Study of Municipal and Pastoral Teenagers at Secondary Level in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan 2020-10-29T10:14:58+00:00 Bahar Hussain Abdur Rashid Dr. Farooq Hussain <p><em>This investigational work seeks to analyze the speediness competence of 14-16-year-old high school teenagers to assess the municipal and pastoral residents of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) in Pakistan. The target group of the study was high school teenagers. Simple random sampling techniques were adopted to select the sample of five hundred [500] teenagers from the target population. A 20-meter sprint (20-MS) was employed for data collection. Data were gathered and evaluated by applying SPSS version 20. Quantitative analytical tools were employed for the analysis of accumulated data. The finding of the study reflected that the proportion of teenagers in pastoral areas was substantially better than in municipal areas.</em></p> 2020-10-19T16:37:27+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Description and Categorization of Balti Tense Markers 2020-10-29T10:14:58+00:00 Iftikhar Hussain Arshad Khan Amina Khalid <p><em>The current study aims at describing and categorizing the possible tense markers of Balti language, spoken in the Baltistan region of Gilgit-Baltistan. As for linguistics exposure is concerned, Balti is one of the less explored languages. Balti has a handful amount of traditional pieces of literature in the form of books (Traditional Grammars, stories, and history) and even the available Balti literature have not been documented within the proper paradigm of linguistics. To conduct this particular study, 200 Balti root words (verbs) have been collected from the corpus data using both the naturalistic and documented sources. The selected 200 Balti root words (verbs) were critically described, analyzed, and categorized within the paradigm of inflectional morphemes of tense markers using the qualitative research design. The result shows that there are 11 tense markers, i.e., “-ed", "-en", "-set", "-s", "-uk", "-nuk", "-tuk", "-ik", "-in", "-se" and "-e" in Balti language. These tense markers are added to the respective root verbs to mark present indefinite, present participle, past participle, future indefinite, and future perfect tenses.&nbsp; This study will hopefully encourage future researchers to conduct research works on the various aspects of Balti language.</em></p> 2020-10-19T16:33:38+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Children’s Body Mass Index: A Comparative Study of Out-city and Inner-city Youngsters in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, at the Elementary Educational Institution Level 2020-10-29T10:14:58+00:00 Abdur Rashid Bahar Hussain Dr. Farooq Hussain <p><em>This investigational work aims to analyze the body mass index (BMI) of elementary educational institution youngsters aged 7-12 years and to assess inner-city and pastoral youngsters in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Pakistan). The target population was elementary educational institution youngsters, of whom 500 were sampled by simple random sampling from educational institutions in both out-city and inner-city locations. Data were collected by height and weight measurements and analyzed with SPSS version 20. Quantitative analysis instruments were employed. A comparative evaluation of the data reflected that the body mass index of inner-city youngsters was substantially better than that of their pastoral counterparts.</em></p> 2020-10-19T16:30:02+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Evaluation of Oxford Progressive English Text Book: A Qualitative Study 2020-10-29T10:18:33+00:00 Abdul Ali Amara Javed Dr. Ghulam Murtaza <p>Textbook evaluation is considered an important factor in the field of education from the aspect of teachers and learners. The current examination aims to evaluate the Oxford Progressive English textbook for 8th class. The current study aims to probe strong and weak points in the given coursebook. Besides, whether the textbook should be accepted or rejected will also be explored in this study. As for research methodology, the nature of the present research is of descriptive qualitative. The sample for the evaluation is the Oxford Progressive English text for the 8th class Checklist method and an impressionistic method “as an instrument will be used for evaluating the ELT material. The following “Checklist” was used to evaluate the textbook. Sheldon’s checklist has been used as an instrument of the research. The data has been collected from the textbook on the 8<sup>th.</sup> The findings of the study show that almost the merits and demerits of the textbook are equal. Demerits include a lack of focus on language skills and sub-skills. Other aspects of language learning have also been ignored, for example: need analysis, learners' age, background, learning style, examination equivalence, self –revision exercises, achievement test, self-checks, supplementary material, audiovisual recording. This study concludes that the school management should replace or revise the contents of the textbook.</p> 2020-10-19T16:27:07+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Exploring the Role of Classroom Environment in Hampering L2 Communicative Interaction: A Case Study of the South Punjab 2020-10-29T10:18:33+00:00 Dr. Muhammad Ahsan Dr. Noshaba Younus Dr. Zahoor Hussain <p><em>The prime focus of this research was exploring the role of classroom situation in hampering L2 communicative interaction at the public sector colleges, universities, and the sub-campuses of these universities located in the South Punjab, Pakistan. The present study was duly prearranged to employ a mixed-method technique that utilizes both the qualitative and quantitative data. The outcomes of the study determined that 86.5% of learners claimed that their classmates are not interested in communicative interaction. Similarly, 47.5% viewed outdated syllabus, 52.5% classroom atmosphere, 69.5% learners' prohibited participation during L2 lecture, 37.5% badly imitation by classmates and 95.5% teachers' use of grammar-translation method as communicative barriers and these barriers ruin L2 learners’ communicative ability. This paper also reinforces the outlook that the teachers have to expose the students to the interactive communication so that the learners can easily perform their various roles in the L2 atmosphere. At this point, it is the most crucial duty of the teacher to encourage and motivate his students to practice and to have more communicative interaction in the EFL classroom because most of the non-native countries students don't have the chance to use it outside the classroom.</em></p> 2020-10-19T16:24:02+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Exploring the Mediating Effect of KMPC on PM and OP in the Education Sector 2020-10-29T10:18:33+00:00 Mahwash Ghafoor Chaudhry Dr. Samina Nawab Dr. Khuram Shafi <p><em>The basic objective of this research study is to determine the impact Performance Management (PM) has on the overall performance of the organizations in the education sector of Pakistan. The study also seeks to explore the role of Knowledge Management Process Capabilities (KMPC) by</em><em> Gold, Malhotra, &amp; Segars (2001)</em><em> acting as a mediator on the relationship between Performance Management (PM) and Organizational Performance (OP). Research methodology based on the quantitative approach uses a multi-itemed questionnaire to collect the data. The data reliability is tested using Cronbach Alpha and in addition to the regression, correlation analysis, and the Baron and Kenny mediation procedure. The result of the study indicates the presence of a relationship between PM and OP being partially mediated by KMPC. Knowledge management (KM) needs to focus and be linked with PM when positive results are expected to be delivered by the organization in the form of improved performance. KM process seeks to identify and explain the mechanism or process underlies the relationship between PM and OP and hence needs to be embedded within the PM cycle which applies to the overall performance of the organization.</em></p> 2020-10-19T16:20:38+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Technology Enhanced Formative Assessment for Students’ Motivation in Mathematics at Elementary Level 2020-10-29T10:18:34+00:00 Abida Shaheen Dr Farhana Khurshid Dr Muhammad Saeed Khan <p><em>Technology Enhanced Formative Assessment (TEFA) is an advanced and evidence-based pedagogical approach for science and mathematics teaching using a classroom response system. Question-driven instruction, dialogical discourse, formative assessment, and meta-level communication are four core principles on which TEFA is built upon. These are implemented through a question cycle in the classroom. Eight weeks duration intervention study was carried out in two urban high schools, one from each stratum (i.e., boys and girls) using a non-equivalent comparison group quasi-experimental design on a sample of 183 participants. The study participants included 42 girls and 47 boys in the experimental group, whereas 54 girls and 40 boys in the control group from the 8th-grade mathematics class. Students' mathematics motivation survey using IMI (i.e., intrinsic motivation inventory) was used to measure students' mathematics learning motivation levels. Two-way ANOVA was conducted to assess the motivation level of the students. Analysis of the results showed that the experimental group motivation level was significantly higher than the control group.</em></p> 2020-10-19T16:17:41+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Effectiveness/Impact of ICTs on Academic Achievement of Students 2020-10-29T10:18:34+00:00 Syed Yasir Ali Gilani Prof. Dr. Syed Manzoor H Shah Dr. Iqbal Majoka <p><em>The present study has been conducted to discover the “Impact/Effect of ICTs on Academic Achievement of Students at Post Graduate Level” in public sectors general universities of Federal Capital Islamabad. The objectives of the study were; to examine the use of ICTs and their impact on academic achievement of students at post graduate level. The population of the research study has been comprised of 460 students’ from federal public sector universities offering post graduate study in the fields of social sciences. The sample of study was comprised of two hundred and ten students; chosen by proportionate random sampling technique.The tools of the research (questionnaire) were formulated on five-point (Likert) scale, the reliability were authenticated by pilot testing and was found satisfactory at 0.96. After the data collection, the analysis were made using percentage, mean, and the chi-square (χ<sup>2</sup>) statistical tool.The overall derived results in this research study depict that ICTs plays a vital role in learning process globally.On the basis of analyzed data and conclusions it is recommended that postgraduate students should be trained via refresher courses, seminars and training programs for usage of ICTs before the start of the research.</em></p> 2020-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Importance of Pre-Service Teacher Training and Need of Time to Strengthen at National Level 2020-10-29T10:18:34+00:00 Dr. Sohaib Sultan <p><em>The qualitative research had been carried on to highlight the importance of Pre-Service Teachers, Training programs in the country. It had been observing to underestimate the aforementioned subject during the last decade. For this purpose the topic was selected to carry on research to bring into limelight the importance of pre-service teachers’ training programs in the country. The document analysis was done to highlight the importance in the context of international scenario and its requirement in national grid. The recommendations were furnished accordingly.</em></p> 2020-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Socio-Medical Viewpoints of Female Korean Students during the Covid-19 Pandemic of 2020 2020-10-29T10:25:08+00:00 Prof. Alaric Naudé <p><em>Korea was one of the first countries to be directly impacted by the Covid19 (SARS Type II) virus. The swift response by the medical community was highly effective in reducing the spread of the virus: however, the education system was slower to follow suit and implement changes. This study focuses on the motivational factors of first-year (female) nursing students and analyses their opinions and thoughts on three factors: their satisfaction with the national medical response: their satisfaction with the educational system’s response, and, lastly, their scientific/nursing view on gender-based and feminist responses to the global pandemic. Overall, nursing students reported satisfaction with the medical response. They were, somewhat divided on the education sector response, though satisfied with the online platform of university lectures. Female nursing students rejected gendered/feminist views on quarantine and expressed such views to be both antiscientific as well as impractical in the control of the infectious disease.</em></p> 2020-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Career Progression of Women Academics in Pakistani Universities: Enablers and Barriers 2020-10-29T10:25:13+00:00 Dr. Saeeda Shah Ms. Samra Bashir Dr. Muhammad Amin <p><em>There is a dramatic increase in the number of women students in higher educational institutions but this had not been matched by growth in the number of women in senior leadership positions in Pakistani Universities. The current study was designed to explore the barriers and enablers that influence the professional development of women academics in Pakistan. Furthermore, the study investigated how female academicians manage the balance in their personal and professional life. Semi-structured interviews followed by a probing strategy were conducted to seek responses to these questions. 10 female academicians were selected purposively from two public sector universities of Lahore. Thematic analysis was conducted by using an inductive approach. Member check was applied for the reliability of themes drawn from the data. Each theme was explored in-depth and themes emerged from a smaller number of women were treated separately under the category of unique theme. Women considered their professional career development as a source of pride and gratification. Women academicians at the senior level enjoyed leadership roles as compared to young academicians; who were more involved in teaching and research. Females complained that they had not the information on policies relevant to their job and merit is neglected most of the time by higher authorities. Females claimed that they faced a biased attitude of their senior male colleagues/heads of departments but were highly motivated to face these challenges at the workplace.</em></p> 2020-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Towards Cultural Clash and Hybridity, An Analysis of Bapsi Sidhwa’s An American Brat 2020-10-29T10:25:08+00:00 Shamim Akhter <p><em>Culture is a way of life that takes into its jurisdiction to all experiences of life and social associations. Culture receives variations over time. Similarly, the culture of the Sub-continent is altered with the arrival of the English here. That is why the Literature of this area is called Post-colonial literature. Cross-Culturalism is also a part of post-colonial theory. Its chief aim is to analyze the morphological organization which takes to the origination of the conception. Culturalism indicates the tractability of the self to absorb in the transmission and understanding of spoken and written indications and to react accurately and suitably. The ‘cross’ in cross-culturalism designates the crossing of the remotest barriers from one make to another. It also reveals the constant growth of borders.&nbsp; People migrate to other countries, lead life by absorbing the culture of that country but they experience problems regarding language and their own culture.&nbsp; The undertaken research aims to reveal the cross-cultural experiences keeping in view Sidhwa’s (1994) ‘An American Brat’. Sidhwa (1994), explores the differences of cultures that existed between East and West by introducing the character of&nbsp;&nbsp; Feroza. Feroza belongs to Pakistan and goes to America. She finds the culture of America different from the culture of her native country. The undertaken research is an attempt to reveal the description of cultural differences and hybridity through the character of Feroza.</em></p> 2020-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Impact of Crime Shows on Behavior of Television Viewers in Pakistan: A Survey Study of Lahore City 2020-10-29T10:18:36+00:00 Nasir Khan Prof. Ghulam Shabir <p><em>The current study investigates the impacts of television crime shows on the attitude of viewers. The researcher employed a quantitative approach and the survey method is used to collect the data. A structured questionnaire with close-ended research items was circulated among 100 respondents chosen through stratified sampling in Lahore because Lahore is the capital city with a heterogamous population. The respondents were university students below the age of 25 years. The findings of the study revealed that people feel fearful, vulnerable, and insecure after watching crime shows. These shows increase overthinking and aggression among the viewers. This study depicts that crime shows play a pivotal role to develop criminality in society. These crime shows tend to develop criminal minds to fulfil their needs through illegitimate means. The social construction of criminality is more prevalent than the representation of safety and security in these crime shows. The Cultivation Theory is applied to investigate the influence of television crime shows on heavy viewers as well as light viewers.</em></p> 2020-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Religious Coping as a Predictor of Positive Affect and Life Satisfaction during Epidemic Conditions of COVID-19 2020-10-29T10:18:36+00:00 Dr. Hina Ayaz Habib Shahzad Hussain Dr. Nina Ayaz Habib <p><em>The present study is conducted to investigate the impact of positive and negative religious coping on life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect during the times of COVID-19 pandemic in Punjab, Pakistan. The hypotheses formulated are 1) Positive religious coping predicts positive effect during epidemic conditions of COVID-19 in residents of Punjab. 2) Positive religious coping has a significant impact on life satisfaction during epidemic conditions of COVID-19 in citizens of Punjab. 3) Negative religious coping predicts negative effects during COVID-19 conditions in citizens of Punjab, Pakistan. The study adopts the observational design and gathers data through demographic sheets, Subjective Well-Being Scale and Brief Religious Coping Scale (RCOPE). The population for the study is the residents of Punjab, Pakistan with data being gathered online. 200 participants were recruited online through convenience sampling. Data was statistically analyzed through the Statistical Package for Social Science version 22, and to test the research hypotheses descriptive statistics and Linear Regression Analysis were used. The Linear Regression results indicate that Positive Religious Coping significantly predicts Positive Affect (R<sup>2<strong>=</strong></sup> .239, F = 61.093, p&lt;.00) and life satisfaction (R<sup>2<strong>=</strong></sup> .239, F = 61.093, p&lt;.00) while Negative Religious Coping is significantly correlated with negative affect (R<sup>2<strong>=</strong></sup> .310, F = 87.568, p&lt;.00).&nbsp; Positive religious coping is positively correlated with life satisfaction and positive affect while negative religious coping is positively correlated with negative affect. These findings can be used to educate people about RC in Pakistan as it is a Muslim country and there is a culture of seeking help through religion in various stressful situations.</em></p> 2020-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Second Constituent Assembly of Pakistan: Politics for Dissolution of Former Assembly and Electoral Regulations for New Assembly 2020-10-29T10:18:37+00:00 Dr. Rizwan Ullah Kokab Dr. Ali Shan Shah Tariq Aziz <p><em>One part of this paper uncovers how the politics around the demands for the dissolution and re-election of the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan took place subsequent to the elections for the country’s provincial legislatures, especially in East Pakistan. Following the dissolution of the Assembly, Pakistan was tangled into a political quagmire about the election of the successor of the Constituent Assembly. The politics around pre-election legislation to resolve this predicament is recorded in the second part of the study. The British archival record makes the most of source material of this study. These records provide impartial and third party accounts – hence are reliable sources – of the political developments of the period under consideration. As in the period, Pakistan was a dominion state under the British the records of Dominion Office (DO) or Commonwealth Relations Office (CRO) bear detailed inside and secret information that is rarely available in indigenous historical works. Therefore, the study provides a thorough and impartial historical explanation of the electoral politics on the dissolution of the original Constituent Assembly and formation legal framework for the constitution of the new Assembly.</em></p> 2020-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr A Structuralist Analysis of Wordsworth’s Ode: Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood 2020-10-29T10:18:35+00:00 Dr. Ghulam Murtaza Qasim Shafiq Dr. Asim Aqeel <p><em>Romantic imagination is against any fixation of form and rules and regulations but any creative attempt, however anti-rule it may be, must have some underlying principles governing its structure. This article explores Wordsworth's Ode: Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood from a structuralist perspective. Structuralism with its roots in Ferdinand de Saussure’s structural view of language sees cultural phenomena and literary endeavors as structured based on the underlying rules governing the writing of the creative work. This article joins two contradictory ideas: Romantic poetry which glorifies the author's subjectivity and structuralism which beliefs in the death of the author. However, this article analyzes the ode from a structuralist perspective and principles of criticism: parallels and echoes, reflections and repetitions, contrasts, and patterns of language and imagery. It also studies the Ode's relationship with the tradition of the genre and its differences from and similarities to other odes.</em></p> 2020-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Theoretical Approaches to the Study of Voting Behaviour: A Comparative Analysis 2020-10-29T10:25:12+00:00 Noor Hamid Khan Mahsud Husnul Amin <p><em>The study of voting behavior is a sub-field of Political Science. Voting represents an important aspect of public participation in a democratic system. Keeping in view the importance of voting behavior in a democratic dispensation, social scientists have paid much attention to its determinants. At least three kinds of theoretical models can be discerned in the works of social scientists: a sociological model, a psycho-social model, and a rational choice model. The focus of the sociological model is on social factors, the psychosocial model focuses on psychological or political factors, while the rational choice model emphasizes economic factors. The main aim of the paper is to present a brief overview of these three kinds of models comparatively.</em></p> 2020-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr The Effects of Western Culture on the Family System of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa: An Overview 2020-10-29T10:25:12+00:00 Rubina Naz Dr. Hashmat Begum Dr. Sardaraz Khan <p><em>The present study aims to explore the effects of Western culture on the family system of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Every culture in the world is diversified. Culture is an invisible thing, but its effects can be seen and felt. The most significant changes of the society often come through its cultural norms. This paper discourses the influences of Western culture on the Muslim culture of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa. A qualitative descriptive approach was adopted, and data was collected from books, journals, newspapers, and the internet. Results revealed that there were significant effects of Western culture on the family system of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The research concluded that the influences of Western culture come through education, media, the internet, and cell phones.</em></p> 2020-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Internet Addiction, Shyness, and Self-Esteem of Pakistani Youth 2020-11-04T10:27:35+00:00 Dr. Ibtasam Thakur Dr. Asma Azeem Dr. Nadia Gilani <p><em>Internet addiction is the most rising tool of the present era. Undoubtedly, it has left a strong influence on the minds of youth. Like other parts of the world use of the internet is quite common in Pakistan. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between internet addiction, shyness, and self-esteem of Pakistani youth. 120 young students; male (n=60) females (n=60) were selected through purposive sampling. The researchers explored how excessive use of the internet brings problems and how all these problems reflect in their behavior. It highlighted how at this point, emerges the significance of self-esteem and shyness. Internet Addiction Test (IAT) developed by Dr. Kimberly Young (1998), the collective self-esteem scale (CSES) developed by Riia Luhtanen and Jennifer Crooker, 1992 and 1994, and Shyness scale developed by Cheek &amp; Melichor (1985) were used in the present study to measure internet addiction self-esteem and shyness of Pakistani youth. The results of the study indicated that all study variables have a significant positive correlation with each other. It is found that female students have significantly higher scores on shyness as compared to male students and students of private institutes have significantly higher scores on internet addiction than students of public institutes. One of the reasons may be that students of private institutes have more easy access to the internet as compared to public students. The present study indicated that master’s level students have significantly higher scores on private collective self-esteem and shyness as compared to bachelor’s students.</em></p> 2020-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Exploring the Role of Dialogic Teaching in Improving Learners’ Spoken English at Intermediate Level in District Bannu 2020-10-29T10:25:11+00:00 Ihsan Ullah Khan <p><em>The study aims to explore the role of dialogic teaching, derived from Bakhtin's 'Dialogism', at an intermediate level in the English language teaching-learning process in District Bannu. An experimental research design was used in the study. Pre and post-tests were used for data collection. A 12<sup>th</sup> Grade Class of a public sector college was selected for the conduction of the experimental study. In this design, two groups namely, the control group and treatment group were administered pre and post-tests. Only the treatment group was given the treatment. The pre-test was designed to assess the oral proficiency of the treatment group. A paired sample t-test was used for the analysis of data. After the analyses of the data results were drawn. Data revealed that monologic teaching was prevalent in most of the classrooms, with no or very little space for the students to interact in the English language. Dialogic pedagogy proved very effective in finding out a solution to a real-world problem. Being dialogic, the pedagogy improved the oral proficiency of the students of the treatment group considerably.</em></p> 2020-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Social Networking and Secondary Schools: Evaluation of the Efforts of the KP Government 2020-10-29T10:25:11+00:00 Dr. Waqar UN Nisa Faizi Dr. Anila Fatima Shakil Dr. Rabia Abdul Karim <p><em>The Pakistani education system is facing deep-rooted problems for a very long period. Though some policies are devised to enhance the education system, especially the secondary education system in Pakistan. This research has therefore aimed at exploring the incorporation of social networking in secondary education while considering the efforts of the KP Government to reform the educational system. From its results, it is analyzed that the KP government has proposed effective approaches, yet many efforts need to be taken to properly accept and integrate social networking in making the education system more effective.</em></p> 2020-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr Development and Validation of Performance Appraisal Scale (PAS-HSSTs) for Higher Secondary School Teachers 2020-10-29T10:25:10+00:00 Muhammad Nadeem Dr. Seema Arif Dr. Muhammad Zaheer Asghar <p><em>A study was conducted to develop the research instrument for evaluating the Performance Appraisal System (PAS) at public higher secondary schools in Punjab. Data were collected from the three divisions total (N=900) male and female teachers of public schools using a multi-stage sampling technique. The questionnaire was founded on the factors elaborated in the Performance Evaluation Report (PER), National Professional Standards (NPS) for teachers. This scale is extended to evaluate the satisfaction of the teachers with the performance appraisal process. The factors taken from PER are classroom management, quality of teaching, motivation, teamwork, and punctuality, whereas Awareness, Satisfaction with PAS, Dissatisfaction with PAS, and Need for Improvement were added by the researchers to evaluate the PAS process. Performance Appraisal Scale for higher secondary school teachers (PAS-HSSTs) contained 57 items. The experts' opinion was sought to check for content validity, and a pilot study was performed with 300 teachers from public higher secondary schools. The reliability coefficient (Cronbach alpha) of the instrument was .866 for the pilot and .883 for final data. Structure Equation Modelling (SEM) was used for the validation of the instrument (PAS-HSSTs) using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). The factor loadings of all items used in the scale were well above the threshold value 0.35. The SEM results indicated that Fit indices for PAS resulted in an acceptable model fit.</em></p> 2020-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr The Analysis of Peace Teaching Practices at the University Level in Pakistan 2020-10-29T10:25:10+00:00 Tariq Manzoor Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Ashfaque Ahmad Shah <p><em>The peaceful coexistence among people is the key to a stable and progressing world. The focus of the study was to examine the desired and existing level of peace teaching practices at the university level. Convergent mixed methods design was considered best fit, using qualitative and quantitative methods. Respondents of the study were all administrators, the teachers, and BS students at the universities of Pakistan. Multistage sampling techniques were used for the selection of the respondents. Three instruments were used in this study; first and second instruments were self-developed questionnaires consisting of 50 items both for teachers and students used to collect quantitative data. The reliability of questionnaires was computed after pilot testing applying Cronbach’s Alpha (0.92). The third instrument i.e. interview schedule consisted of (5) questions, was used to collect qualitative data. The analysis of data revealed that the desired level for peace teaching practices and its subsidiary values is significantly greater than the existing level of peace teaching practices. It leads to the conclusion that there is more need for teaching peace and its subsidiary values to university students. Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan may suggest a separate course on peace in its policy guidelines for the universities under its auspices.</em></p> 2020-09-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr