https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/issue/feed sjesr 2024-04-28T16:24:49+00:00 Muhammad Idrees info@sjesr.org.pk Open Journal Systems <p><iframe src="https://sjesr.org.pk" width="100%" height="3050"> </iframe></p> https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/1018 India’s Strategic Tilt: Global Alliances for National Gain 2024-03-31T19:19:44+00:00 Waniyyah Hassan waniyyahhassan@gmail.com Dr. Bilal Zubair waniyyahhassan@gmail.com <p><em>The research aims to explore India’s strategic tilt towards the great powers. How it creates an effect on its national gains. Study of this research aims to dive into India’s strategies by examining its geo-strategic location which is crucial for the global powers. By analyzing them this paper examines the motives, designs, and tactics of India to become a superpower and also the factors that are contributing to capturing the global powers' attention. This research questions what factors pitch in India's balancing act, specifically in dealing with the relations with the USA, China, and Russia. And in what ways does India’s cultural diplomacy aid in shaping the global perception of the country? The research implies a qualitative method for data collection. Narrative techniques were used for data analysis. The findings of this research will conduce to the understanding of how India strategically plays in the international arena with the great powers and what are their assumptions on it. It is recommended that India play a positive role in the peaceful existence of neighboring nations and resolve all issues with other countries peacefully.</em></p> 2024-03-31T08:04:35+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/1005 Impact of the Teacher’s Technological Pedagogical Skills at Higher Level 2024-03-31T07:48:16+00:00 Rubina Usman rubinajahangir1@gmail.com <p><em>Technology has developed a complicated and necessary interaction with various sectors of society in the twenty-first century, offering multiple conceptual and practical models for incorporating technologies in teaching. (TPCK) provides chances for learners to develop critical thinking and creative potential as part of their personal growth. This research study explores teachers' perceptions regarding the Impact of the Teacher's Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) on Student's Creativity skills at higher levels. 100 teachers of B. Ed (Hons) have been selected from 10 Universities in Karachi through simple random sampling. Reliability &amp; Regression test has been run on SPSS for inferential statistics. Descriptive analysis revealed the age and gender details. This quantitative study revealed the significant relationship between teacher's Technological Pedagogical Content knowledge (TPCK) on Students' Creativity skills. </em>It was found that technology-integrated teaching pedagogy develops students' interest, motivation, collaboration, critical thinking, social responsibility, and creativity.<em> This study assists higher education teachers in comprehending the significance of Teacher Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) on Student Creativity skills. </em></p> 2024-03-31T07:46:53+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/1022 Weighty Matters: Exploring the Economic Ramifications of Obesity, Abdominal Bloating, and Spinal Deformities in Pakistan 2024-03-12T16:57:48+00:00 Muhammad Ali alimuhammad1447@gmail.com Zubair Ahmad zubair.phdstudent@lum.it <p><em>This study conducted in Pakistan from December 2020 to December 2022 addresses the rising health issues associated with abdominal bloating (AB), spinal deformities (ST), and obesity. With risk factors including improper diet, sedentary lifestyles, and abnormal posture, the research aims to provide valuable insights into the complications and diseases linked to these health concerns. The observational study involved 50 males categorized into three age groups (50-60, 61-70, 71-75), with 48 classified as obese and 2 non-obese participants. Utilizing data tabulation and GraphPad Prism 9.5.2, the study employed econometric research methods and descriptive statistics, including ANOVA variance, for parametric analysis. Results indicated a positive association between AB and health diseases, with a slight association observed with ST. Participants exhibited varying levels of ST and AB, revealing potential links between these factors. The study concludes that factors like improper diet and sedentary lifestyles increase the risk of obesity, which, in turn, may progress to AB and lead to ST, potentially causing a range of chronic health issues.</em></p> 2024-03-12T04:50:44+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/1021 Effective Implementation of Semester System in Colleges: A Case Study of the Affiliated Colleges with the University of Malakand 2024-03-04T16:47:58+00:00 Dr. Itbar Khan itbarkhan@uom.edu.pk Dr. Iqbal Ahmad ikbalchitrali@gmail.com Sumera Imran sumeraimransst@yagoo.com <p><em>This research aimed to investigate the measures required for the effective implementation of a semester system for undergraduate education in graduate and post-graduate colleges affiliated with the University of Malakand. The study mainly focused on physical requirements (lecture rooms, laboratories, library), human resource requirements (faculty members, staff), issues in the curriculum, and major issues in the assessment system from the perspectives of teachers of public sector colleges affiliated with the University of Malakand. A mixed-method research design was used for data collection. First, qualitative data was collected, and analyzed through thematic analysis, and then a questionnaire was developed for quantitative data analysis. The findings of the study showed that there were several issues in the implementation of the semester system in the affiliated colleges. These included lengthy courses, outdated content, irrelevant content, lack of space such as classrooms, science labs, etc, need for curriculum improvement, poor assessment system, lack of training for teachers, and lack of regular monitoring from management and the university side. Based on the results it is suggested that the implementation of the semester system in the colleges needs to be reviewed and improved for the affiliated colleges and to ensure quality education.</em></p> 2024-03-03T06:32:55+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/1017 Territorial Disputes in the South China Sea: Economic Implications for the Region 2024-03-04T16:48:11+00:00 Umme Laila lailaumme17@gmail.com Dr. Fouzia Amin fouzia@ndu.edu.pk Zafar Hassan zafarhasan527@gmail.com <p><em>This research paper explores the territorial disputes in the South China Sea and their economic implications for the regional countries focusing on their geo-economic and geostrategic significance. The South China Sea holds substantial importance because of the high percentage of global trade passing through it. The historical claims of Beijing on the Paracel and Spratly Islands against the UNCLOS provide a baseline of territorial disputes with ASEAN countries. For research methodology, the author relies on qualitative analysis using secondary data sources. To develop a theoretical framework for this complex issue, the author applies theories of <strong>Neo-Realism</strong>, <strong>Maritime Regional Security Complex</strong>, and <strong>Security dilemma</strong>. This paper is aimed at exploring economic implications for regional states in case of potential conflicts emerging in case of engagement among regional as well as external powers. This research has emphasized the development of a Beijing-ASEAN forum focused on establishing economic, diplomatic, and security ties for the creation of the <strong>Eastern Economic Block</strong> at a broader level.</em></p> 2024-03-03T06:17:56+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/1011 Assessing the Effectiveness of Quad in Maritime Containment of China in the Indo-Pacific Region 2024-01-10T16:03:52+00:00 Hamail Tahir hamail.tahir@gmail.com Dr. Fouzia Amin hamail.tahir@gmail.com <p><em>The Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (QUAD) comprises of likeminded countries India, Australia, US and Japan. It is a significant player in the Indo-Pacific region amidst a growing Chinese influence. This research paper assesses the effectiveness of Quad in the maritime containment of China. The paper also circulates around individual national interests that may hinder the effectiveness of Quad while also underscoring its limitations. The research was conducted using a qualitative research method. Secondary sources such as journal articles, news, and official joint statements by the alliance were consulted to formulate this paper. The alliance is subjugated to the potential impact on the future of the Indo-Pacific region. Lastly, its effectiveness is quite uncertain towards a counter balancing China and its significant implications for regional security and freedom of navigation. In terms of future prospects, the maritime security and its threats will keep on changing with evolving time.</em></p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/1007 Effectiveness of 4D/5D Scheduling in Planning for Delay Reduction in Construction Projects 2024-01-11T16:04:53+00:00 Hafiz Muhammad Qamar Abbas qamarurzaman4@gmail.com Shahan Mehmood Cheema shahan.cheema@superior.edu.pk Dr. Muhammad Faisal Shahzad mfshahzad@uet.edu.pk <p><em>Construction projects globally are frequently plagued by chronic issues such as delays and cost overruns. This study examined the feasibility of incorporating 4D (3D + time) and 5D (3D + time + cost) scheduling methodologies in construction planning with the aim of enhancing project efficiency. This study conducted an examination of the advantages associated with increased visualisation, improved task sequencing, proactive delay detection, optimised resource allocation, and integrated cost control while utilising 4D/5D building information modelling (BIM). The implementation of 4D/5D techniques has resulted in reductions in delays ranging from 15% to 50%, as evidenced by global case studies. The present study employed a cost-benefit analysis framework to assess hypothetical projects, aiming to quantify possible savings in terms of time and money. The findings reveal a decrease of 190 days and 22.4 million PKR, respectively, in these two dimensions. The adoption of 4D/5D BIM resulted in a notable increase in stakeholder satisfaction, with ratings improving from 2.6 to 4.2 out of 5. The study's findings indicate that, despite encountering several challenges, the use of 4D/5D scheduling in the Pakistani construction sector yields notable improvements in efficiency and benefits for stakeholders. The recommendations encompass the development of standardised data, software with interoperability capabilities, training programs, and collaborative initiatives within the industry. These measures are crucial for the successful implementation of 4D/5D Building Information Modelling (BIM). Additional investigation might examine the long-term return on investment, the use of these techniques in infrastructure projects, and comparison assessments with traditional methods.</em></p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/1012 "Exploring the Impact of Online Learning on Student Academic Performance in Higher Education" 2024-01-13T16:05:42+00:00 Anam Nazneen Tara malikanam042@gmail.com Asma Tariq asmatariqa2021@outlook.com Yan Zhang zhangyan1889@gmail.com <p><em>This research investigates the impact of online learning on student engagement and academic performance in the higher education landscape. In a sample of 300 students from public sector universities in Punjab, Pakistan, the researcher examined online learning experiences, demographic factors, and academic performance. The descriptive statistics revealed moderately positive online learning experiences and moderately favorable academic performance on average, accompanied by significant variability within the sample. Correlation analysis, however, unveiled very weak and often statistically insignificant relationships between these variables, suggesting complex and non-linear dynamics at play. Consequently, we advocate for personalized support, adaptable pedagogical approaches, inclusivity, accessibility, and interdisciplinary collaboration as essential components to enhance online learning. Moreover, this study calls for continued research to unearth the intricate dynamics of online education's influence on student outcomes, driving the evolution of evidence-based practices in higher education.</em> The study underlines the necessity for continued research into online education's complex dynamics and student outcomes. This includes studying new technology, learning analytics, and pedagogical methods to inform evidence-based practices in higher education.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/1013 ‘Breaking the Glass Classroom: Unravelling Impact of Gender Discrimination and Perceived Inequities on Job Satisfaction in Educational Professions in Pakistan’ 2024-04-28T16:24:49+00:00 Asma Tariq mharoonali6@gmail.com Anam Nazneen Tara malikanam042@gmail.com Yan Zhang zhangyan1889@gmail.com <p><em>This study examined 'Breaking the Glass Classroom: Unravelling Gender Discrimination and Perceived Inequities in Pakistani Educational Professions,' analyses of gender discrimination, perceived disparities, and work satisfaction among professors in public sector universities in Punjab, Pakistan, and captures the essence of the study. The nature of the study was descriptive. A stratified random sample technique, used in survey methodology with a quantitative approach, ensures improved external validity. The population of the study was male and female university teachers in the public sector in the district of Punjab. Credible conclusions are generated using a standardized questionnaire with predetermined scales and careful statistical analysis of the information gathered from 600 teachers. The study demonstrates a negative association between perceived disparities and job happiness, reveals subtle differences among faculties, and reveals increased gender discrimination against female professors. Although there is no statistically significant in the average level of job satisfaction, the study emphasizes its practical importance by using large effect sizes. Given that the study offers practical advice for decision-makers in government and education, there is an urgent need to promote inclusive workplaces.</em></p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/1016 A Comparative Analysis of Aspiration Errors among Postgraduate Students from Pashto and Punjabi Language Backgrounds 2024-02-23T16:34:28+00:00 Noor Fatima noorashique6@gmail.com Durasham Saleem durashamsaleem@gmail.com Sadaf Bashir sadafbashir135@gmail.com <p><em>This research investigates pronunciation errors in English, specifically focusing on aspiration among postgraduate students from Pashto and Punjabi backgrounds at a public university in Lahore. It aims to identify the distinct pronunciation challenges faced by these groups when learning English as a second language. Voice recordings of participants reading a selected passage from "The Dreams of Tipu Sultan" by Girish Karnad are analyzed, particularly focusing on words containing aspirated sounds, like the /t/ phonic. The study includes participants from both linguistic backgrounds to ensure diversity. Analysis reveals that Pashto speakers generally demonstrate better pronunciation proficiency with fewer errors, while Punjabi speakers struggle more with aspirated sounds, notably the /t/ phonic. These findings align with existing literature, emphasizing how the native language's phonological system influences English pronunciation. The research contributes to understanding language acquisition and suggests tailored teaching approaches for diverse student populations, emphasizing the need for customized interventions to improve English proficiency among Pashto and Punjabi speakers in multicultural academic settings.</em></p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/481 A Study of Demonstrative Determiners in Pashto 2023-10-23T15:07:05+00:00 Imdad Ali imdadali2060@gmail.com Dr. Sikandr Ali sikandar.ali@ell.uol.edu.pk Humera Sharif h_ravian@live.com <p><em>The existence of determiner phrases and their different manifestations in number, gender, and case have been studied and proved in English in many research studies. Many languages other than English need this investigation to establish a sound hypothesis about the universal language structure. This study was an attempt to find out the structure of the determiner phrase in the Pashto. It also investigated the equivalents of the English determiner phrase in the Pashto. It used the spoken corpus of Pashto as primary data. In addition, short stories and novels written by literary writers in the Pashto have been used as secondary data. Moreover, intensive group discussion with native speakers of Pashto has also been utilized as another secondary data source. The minimalist program was used to guide and understand the syntactic structure of languages. It was followed by the determiner phrase hypothesis. The hypothesis states that a noun is headed by its determiner in a noun phrase. Data were analyzed within the framework of the determiner phrase hypothesis. The study shows that a noun in the determiner phrase is not determined by a definite or indefinite article in Pashto. The determiner phrase is inflected for number, gender, and case in Pashto. Furthermore, the Pashto determiner phrase is different from English in terms of medial demonstrative determiners. The study is significant as it provides insight into the structure of the Pashto determiner phrase.</em></p> 2023-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/579 Gender Discrimination in Job Titles in English Language: A Corpus-Based Critical Study 2023-10-23T15:06:53+00:00 Dr. Mansoor Ali sorrorali@yahoo.com Dr. Abdus Samad dr.samad@kust.edu.pk Mr. Tariq Amin tariq.ktk.733@gmail.com <p><em>Males and females have the same rights as members of society but females are discriminated against in terms of job titles. Fairclough's three-dimensional model was used to identify, expose, and challenge the implicit ideologies behind the use of such job titles and pronouns used after these job titles. This research is a mixed method research that aims to analyze the use of male-representing, female-representing, and neutral job titles and the use of pronouns after the use of these job titles in the <strong>British National Corpus (BNC). </strong>15 job titles were selected for the study. Only those job titles were selected for which female-representing and neutral job titles were available and that are more frequently used by the people. Sketch Engine was used to know the frequencies of these job titles.&nbsp; The frequencies of these job titles were compared to know what type of job titles are used more in the <strong>British National Corpus (BNC). </strong>The study showed that there is a big difference between the frequencies of male-representing and female-representing job titles and the frequency of male-specific pronouns is more than the frequency of female-specific pronouns after the use of male-oriented and female-oriented job titles and this leads to discrimination of females. It is suggested that job titles should be used appropriately so that no gender can be discriminated against.</em></p> 2023-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/992 Patriarchal Ideology: A Feminist Study in Pakistani Short Stories Fiction 2023-10-23T15:06:29+00:00 Anisa Sadiq kalsoomaneesa@gmail.com <p><em>This paper intends to examine the position of women during the patriarchal structure to become strong enough for honorable survival. We apply Gerda Lerner's creation of Patriarchy (1989) in the present study. Patriarchy provokes Women voiceless through various assumptions and ideologies. The study has been conducted through textual analysis of Pakistani Short stories while focusing on different customs and events represented by Pakistani feminists to highlight the patriarchal structures. It shows that women have been treated as objects without caring for their desires. Their disrespect for patriarchal notions may deprive them of their existence as human beings. It also pinpoints that women are oppressed, and subjugated, through patriarchal structures. We discussed female characters in the Pakistani Short story writers' works Shahrazad's Golden Leopard and Masroor's The Monkey Wound. Any struggle to get liberation from oppression results in sexist violence.</em></p> 2023-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/933 Impact of Students’ Ubiquitous Learning through Web 2.0 Tool on Students’ 21st Century Skills: Critical Thinking and Collaboration 2023-10-23T15:06:42+00:00 Dr. Safia Urooj safiaurooj786@gmail.com Prof. Dr. Muhammad Shahid Farooq shahid.ier@pu.edu.pk <p><em>Ubiquitous learning is transforming education by enabling human-focused learning through seamless access to resources from anywhere. In addition, these tools enhance context understanding and make it easy to interact between real and digital learning resources, all while offering individualized learning opportunities. This research surveyed public sector university teachers in the Sindh and Punjab provinces of Pakistan to gather their opinions on how Web 2.0 tools and ubiquitous learning are affecting the development of 21st-century learning skills in students. The research aimed to assess the impact of Web 2.0 tools for ubiquitous learning (UL) on the critical thinking and collaboration skills of graduate-level students. To collect data, the study administered a self-developed questionnaire with 50 items rated on a 7-point Likert-type scale to 500 university teachers. This constituted the primary data for the research. According to the findings, ubiquitous learning has a noteworthy effect on fostering critical thinking and collaboration skills in university students. To make ubiquitous learning successful, both private and public sector universities must have adequate ICT infrastructure and provide teacher training that focuses on ICT-based teaching methods. The study can assist university teachers in establishing a ubiquitous learning (UL) environment that employs web 2.0 tools, thereby enabling students to effectively enhance their 21st-century learning skills, including critical thinking and collaboration.</em></p> 2023-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/1010 Students’ Perspective on Digital Education Interventions During COVID-19 Pandemic and Academic Performance of University Students in Punjab 2023-12-23T15:51:31+00:00 Imtiaz Alam imtiazalam77@gmail.com Dr. Hamid Khan Niazi imtiazalam77@gmail.com Dr. Muhammad Khalid Mahmood imtiazalam77@gmail.com <p><em>This study aimed to comprehensively assess university students' perspectives on digital education during the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on academic performance. It focused on gauging satisfaction with digital learning, identifying challenges faced, and providing insights for future educational strategies. Sampling 1,309 students from Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts departments across six public sector universities, the study revealed that female students exhibited greater awareness of online learning. While gender didn't affect computer skills or gadget availability, more females had reliable internet access (51%) compared to males (43%). Challenges included connectivity issues, time management, and power outages. Students expressed moderate satisfaction with study environments and support, signaling a need for improved online education solutions. Regional variations underscored the necessity for tailored strategies to address disparities in perceptions and experiences across different areas.</em></p> 2023-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/981 Ostracism, Façade of Conformity and Employees Performance A Moderated Mediation Model 2023-07-05T14:52:07+00:00 Azizullah Kakar aziz_kakar2002@yahoo.com Prof. Dr. Jahanvash Karim j-vash@hotmail.com Prof. Dr. Zainab Bibi znb2005@hotmail.com <p><em>The current study examined the relationship of Ostracism, Façade of Conformity and Employees Performance with the mediating role of Career Motivation. In addition, psychological capital was used as a moderated mediator in the model. The survey approach was used, both the hard copies and online application link were shared with respondents for their response. The data was collected from 433 respondents from the government departments with grade 17 and above using convenience sampling technique. Career motivation mediated the relationship between ostracism and façade of conformity and between the ostracism and the employee’s performance. The interaction effect of ostracism and psychological capital was insignificant on career motivation. The mediators had an indirect effect on these relationships but this mediation model was not moderated by the psychological capital. The organization shall develop such policies which may provide the opportunities to employees for better interaction like get together, group competition, morning meeting and plan for action so that an employee does not feel isolated.</em></p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/982 The Psychological Impact of Domestic Violence on Teenage Development in Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Purple Hibiscus 2023-07-09T12:39:03+00:00 Ifrah Shahbaz ch.husnat8155@gmail.com <p><em>Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s novel Purple Hibiscus shows how Kambili and Jaja, two teenage siblings, ultimately develop a tendency to combat their psychological tensions in a domestically abused environment under the God-like dictatorship of their father. Their father’s extremely imposing attitude induces anxiety in both teenagers while subjugating their necessary freedom.&nbsp; The research focuses on the development of both siblings as adolescents, as adolescence is an important phase of life in developing a person’s individuality. The work attempts to show the necessary transition in both siblings, Kambili and Jaja, leading to a healthy growth process as they display defiance to overcome the psychologically traumatic experience.</em></p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/984 The Political Rhetoric in the Pre and Post-Election (2013) Speeches of Imran Khan 2023-07-17T12:49:54+00:00 Dr. Sara Khan sara.khan@cuilahore.edu.pk Sumaira Saleem sumairasaleem@cuilahore.edu.pk Dr. Saima Chattha saimachattha@cuilahore.edu.pk <p><em>The study is a political rhetorical analysis of the pre and post-election 2013 speeches of Imran &nbsp;&nbsp;Khan. The study explores the use of five canons of Aristotelian rhetoric i.e. Invention, Arrangement, Style, Delivery and Memory by the Pakistan politician. Also, the study presents a comparative analysis of the pre and post-election speeches. A total of 16 speeches of Imran Khan, 8 speeches from pre and post-election eras each were examined to collect data. The data was divided into both numerical and narrative data sets according to themes developed based on the Aristotelian Classical Theory of Rhetoric. The frequency count for the recurrent data was also evaluated to provide in-depth knowledge of the most recurring rhetorical device. In addition to frequency tables, the study was also illustrated with graphs to envision the reader with the graphical representation of the comparative analysis of the pre and post-election data. The analysis of the data exposes that Imran Khan effectively employed the canons of Classical Rhetoric. Imran Khan used Invention to construct arguments with assistance from the three modes of persuasion i.e. logos, ethos and pathos. From the analysis, it was exposed that Imran Khan used logos (logic) mostly to discover and present arguments both in Pre and Post-election speeches. The arrangement was used to organize the speech in a meaningful manner to intact the interests of the audience. The style was employed to intensify the integrity of the arguments presented. Moreover, the analysis revealed that among the stylistic devices, tropes were used most frequently by the speaker. The canon of delivery was employed to create speeches to be more effective for the listeners. The analysis of the speeches revealed that Imran Khan used falling and rising intonation to make his arguments sound like phenomena for his listeners. Lastly, the canon of memory showed that Imran Khan employed mnemonic devices to bring support to his arguments. The study's findings revealed that Imran Khan successfully employed Aristotelian Rhetoric to present his propositions attractively among his audiences. Keeping in view the limitations, the study nevertheless contributes to the teaching of the art of public speaking and inculcates the political figures of Pakistan to enhance their speech deliverance strategies.</em></p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/980 An Impact of Explicit Teaching of Reading Strategies on the Reading Motivation of Pakistani ESL Learners 2023-08-10T13:32:43+00:00 Zehra Hasan zehrahasan05@gmail.com Dr. Bushra Ahmed Khurram bushrakhurram@yhaoo.com Amna Iqbal amnaiqbal@iqra.edu.pk <p><em>Researchers advise teachers to help students develop a passion for reading to enhance their reading abilities. This action research aims to ascertain the effect of explicit teaching of reading strategies on Pakistani undergraduate ESL learners. The students received explicit reading strategy instruction over a four-month period in two cycles. The data was gathered with the help of a questionnaire i.e. Motivation for Reading Questionnaire (MRQ) before and after the intervention stage. The findings show that teaching reading strategies&nbsp;explicitly ensures a positive impact on students’ motivation to read. As a result, it is discovered that students can get motivated to read if they are familiar with reading strategies, but what is the&nbsp;primary step to create initially is an interactive and interesting environment in the classroom. This study is important for language educators and teacher educators who want to motivate students. It additionally reinforces the usefulness of various existing reading strategies&nbsp;for motivating learners at a Pakistani private institution.</em></p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/987 An investigation into Dichotomy of Teachers’ Professional Inputs and Parents’ Satisfaction in Public Sector Schools 2023-08-12T13:40:48+00:00 Shah Faisal Nawaz faisalnawaz.65@gmail.com Muhammad Uzair-ul-Hassan druzairulhassan@gmail.com Iram Parveen irumiqbaluos@gmail.com <p><em>Teachers’ professionalism is a backbone of school culture. The parents, whose children experience the school’s culture, determine their level of satisfaction. Therefore, a school is a place where teachers’ professional level affects not only its own culture but also determine parents’ dissatisfaction. Our study explores teachers’ professionalism which shapes up school’s culture that consequently make the children’s parents dis/satisfied about schools. We used exploratory design for collecting qualitative data to achieve the objectives. Thematic approach was used for analyzing the data. An interview protocol was developed as a research instrument and by using purposive sampling data were collected from 10 teachers and 05 parents. The results concluded that majority of the primary school teachers seem us less professional which ultimately puts adverse effects on school culture and also makes the children’s parents less satisfied. The study recommends that school culture of our primary schools need to be improved by developing professionalism among teachers through introducing them professional courses in their in-service training programs, up grading their status for making a teaching profession more attractive for the mass of people in Pakistani society.</em></p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/993 Influence of Kant’s Aesthetics on the Aesthetics of Collingwood 2023-08-25T14:04:36+00:00 Dr. Muhmmad Jawwad jawwad.phil@pu.edu.pk <p><em>R. G. Collingwood is supposed to be one of the most important Aesthetes of 20<sup>th</sup> Century. He was a multi-talented person having original ideas in the fields of Philosophical History (his most famous book is ‘Idea of History’), Aesthetics and Anthropology. He was a practitioner in the field of Archaeology and Music. His second most famous book is ‘Principles of Art.’ He is supposed to be an original philosopher of Art too. His Philosophy of Art has much to do and has much connections with the Aesthetics of Immanuel Kant. Kant was a multi-dimensional genius, presenting before the world very original and outstanding ideas about Metaphysics, Epistemology, Ethics and also Aesthetics. This article is an attempt to understand the influence of Kant’s Aesthetics on the Aesthetics of Collingwood and to present before the readers the great similarities between the Aesthetic ideas of these two philosophers. According to Kant, Aesthetics is the fourth most important function of human mind. Apart from pure reasoning, pragmatic thinking and moral concerns, Aesthetics is that aspect of human mind which deals with beauty. The problem with the Aesthetics of Kant or the Aesthetics of Collingwood is that both of the philosophers present Aesthetics as the divider and in the humble opinion of the writer of this article it is not divider but a connector – connector of moral, pragmatic and pure reason.</em></p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/998 Leadership Styles and Their Influence on Project Team Performance 2023-10-17T14:54:54+00:00 Muhammad Abrar Ahmed naqi54577@gmail.com Syed Muhammad Ali Naqi naqi54577@gmail.com Shahan Mehmood Cheema naqi54577@gmail.com <p><em>In today's dynamic and competitive business environment, effective leadership stands as a cornerstone for successful project outcomes. This research delves into the multifaceted relationship between leadership styles and project team performance, exploring the intricate interplay between various leadership approaches and team dynamics. Utilizing a mixed-methods research design, this study comprehensively investigates the impact of leadership styles – including transformational, transactional, laissez-faire, democratic, and autocratic – on project teams across diverse industries. The quantitative phase involves structured surveys administered to project team members and leaders, aiming to quantify the prevalence of different leadership styles within various organizational contexts. Simultaneously, the qualitative phase employs in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, capturing the nuanced experiences and perceptions of team members and leaders regarding the influence of leadership styles on motivation, collaboration, and overall project success. Through rigorous analysis, this research reveals intriguing patterns and correlations between specific leadership styles and project team performance metrics such as quality, timeliness, and efficiency. Moreover, it sheds light on the underlying mechanisms through which leadership impacts team dynamics, uncovering the pivotal role of communication, empowerment, and adaptability in shaping collaborative efforts. Furthermore, this study emphasizes the significance of contextual factors, including project complexity and organizational culture, as crucial influencers of the leadership-team performance nexus. By understanding these contextual nuances, organizations can tailor their leadership strategies to optimize team synergy and enhance project outcomes. The findings presented herein not only contribute to academic discourse in the fields of leadership and project management but also offer practical insights for project managers and organizational leaders. By aligning leadership styles with the unique demands of their projects, businesses can foster a culture of innovation, resilience, and high performance, ultimately achieving sustainable success in today’s competitive landscape.</em></p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/973 Perceptions of College Principals and Faculty Members Regarding Administrative Problems and Job Performance 2023-06-26T12:09:28+00:00 Iqbal Amin Khan iqbalphd.scholar@yahoo.com Sami ul Haq shahyousafzai57@gmail.com Faridullah Khan farid678@hotmail.com <p>Efficient administration of educational institutions is vital for their advancement and growth. Principals play a key role in providing conducive environment for instruction and students’ academic achievement. This study aims to examine the viewpoints of college principals and faculty members regarding the challenges faced in administration and their performance as college principal. A quantitative approach was used to investigate this research problem, employing a descriptive survey design to gather and analyse data. The research study focused on principals and faculty members from government degree and postgraduate colleges for boys and girls in the Malakand Division, Pakistan. A sample of 140 faculty members and 28 principals was selected by using stratified random sampling technique. Data from the participants were collected by using a self-developed questionnaire, which was validated by a panel of experts and its reliability was found through Cronbach’s alpha values which were found for administrative problems and job performance as 0.732 and 0.856 respectively. The study results showed that college principals faced various administrative problem included problems related to teaching and learning process, lack of availability of resources, maintaining good relationship with community, lack of financial resources, lack of capacity building programmes, and political interference. These administrative problems in turn effect lack of exhibiting instructional leadership, evaluating teachers and students’ performance, maintaining conducive working environment, preparing and utilizing budget, and implementing policies. Capacity building and continuous professional development programmes may be worthwhile strategies for improving the administrative, managerial and leadership roles of college principals.</p> 2023-06-26T04:54:18+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/977 Managing Diabetes at Household Level; A case study of Diabetic Patients in Rawalpindi City 2023-06-23T11:59:42+00:00 Iqra Riasat zoyariasat12@gmail.com Mahwish Zeeshan mahwish.zeeshan@uaar.edu.pk Dr. Abid Ghafoor Chaudhry abidgc@uaar.ed.pk <p><em>In the middle- and low-income developing countries like Pakistan treatment of diabetes is very expensive and people can’t afford the cost of medications in this way households face many financial hardships. Therefore, the study was focused on how cultural myths influence the patients in managing diabetes at household level to avoid the use of medications. The purpose of this research is to study the relationship of treatment cost and household budget and further to explore the cultural myths in regards to managing diabetes. The study was carried out in Cantonment area of Rawalpindi city. Further the research study was qualitative in nature and selecting 20 diabetic patients through purposive sampling technique of non-probability sampling type. Moreover, for this study research methodology was exploratory and data were collected through face-to-face interview. Interview has been recorded with due permission of the respondents and transcribed in order to analyze or generate various themes. In this study findings identified in six theme, mode of treatment, affordability of treatment, bearing of expenditure, budget disturbance, Cultural belief and practices, and Cultural myths in management of diabetes. these were found that patients who bear expenses on self without any health insurance or not having any panel of hospital facing issue to manage the diabetes. Due to costly medicines their household budget was badly disturbed and most of them let the visit of doctor, use medication only once in a day just to pass the whole month from these medicines. Further most of the patients never conduct hba1c test regularly and the reason is non-affordability of test cost. Only those who are on the panel of certain hospitals conduct this test after every three months. Furthermore, due to costly medications patients looking for alternative solutions as they choose cultural belief and myths to control diabetes just to satisfy the self.</em></p> 2023-06-22T15:37:46+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/966 Violence against Women: A comparative study of Islamic (with reference to Pakistan) and non-Islamic Jurisdictions 2023-06-13T11:38:14+00:00 Farah Amir farah444amir@gmail.com Nadia Noreen nadianoreen.awan@yahoo.com Shahzada Aamir Mushtaq amirqureshi.adv@gmail.com <p><em>The present study aims to examine the evil of violence against women within different cultures of the world. The research focuses on conducting a comparative analysis to shed light on the patterns of violence experienced by women in Islamic and non-Islamic contexts. The study explores various forms of violence, including physical, sexual, psychological, and economic abuse, with respect to, domestic violence, sexual assault, honour-based violence, familial abuse, discriminatory practices and cultural injustices. By examining the experiences of women across different cultural, social, and economic backgrounds, this study seeks to identify effective measures to address and prevent violence against women. Through a comprehensive analysis of existing literature, this study contributes to the broader understanding of violence against women and provides valuable insights, strategies and policies for policymakers, practitioners, and advocates working towards gender equality and the eradication of violence against women. The study has followed the doctrinal method of research.</em></p> 2023-06-12T05:01:49+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr