https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/issue/feed sjesr 2020-07-02T18:47:52+00:00 Muhammad Idrees info@sjesr.org.pk Open Journal Systems <p><iframe src="https://sjesr.org.pk" width="100%" height="3050"> </iframe></p> https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/230 An Analysis of Various Factors having Direct or Indirect Impacts on Pashtun Nationalism 2020-07-02T18:47:04+00:00 Hamida Bibi tazkiasayed@yahoo.com Surat Khan suratkhan81@yahoo.com <p><em>Every society of the world is stereotype due to the various groups that exist inside the country. Same is the case with Pakistan which consists of various sub-national groups, among them one is the Pashtun ethnic group (society) which always tilted towards religion. Stereotype societies have sometimesgerms of truth but in partial. The main issue is that the importance of the survival of a specific peculiarity connected with a community is voluntarily forgotten in favour of legends mimicry. The scholars admit the presence of religious intolerance among the Pashtun community but the scholars also challenge that although the Pashtun have been hugging religion since fourteen hundred years but has never been overpowered by extremism that exists to this day. It also proves that the main objectives of religious extremism and militancy were to curtail the culture and freedom of its traditions</em>. <em>There are serious grievances of Pashtun community regarding the state policy for this region. The Pashtun populated areas are always used for strategic depth policy.</em></p> 2020-07-02T16:30:02+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/140 Comparative Frame Analysis of Coverage of Kashmir Conflict in Indian and Pakistani Newspapers from War/Peace Journalism Perspective 2020-07-02T18:47:06+00:00 Dr. Bakht Rawan bakht.yusafzai@aiou.edu.pk Syed Inam ur Rahman syed.inamrahman@iiu.edu.pk <p><em>The study analyzes press coverage of Kashmir conflict in Indian and Pakistani leading English newspapers from war/peace journalism perspective. The results show that print media of both the countries were more war-oriented than peace. They were following respective national policies in reporting the Kashmir conflict. War journalism indicators in the coverage of the conflict had outnumbered the peace-journalism indicators. The results confirm previous research studies’ findings regarding the role (negative) of national media in de-escalation of inter-state conflicts. It indicates that conventional media prioritizes coverage of possible conflict scenario in war frames and ignores peace approaches and hence fuels the conflicts further.</em></p> 2020-06-28T13:43:34+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/64 Relationship between Parental Involvement, Students’ Performance Goal Orientation and Academic Achievement at Elementary Level 2020-07-02T18:47:08+00:00 Dr. Sadaf Jabeen sadaf.jaben@gmail.com Dr. Mubashira Khalid tahira.kalsoom@yahoo.com Dr. Tahira Kalsoom tahira.kalsoom@yahoo.com <p><em>The study aims to explore association between parental involvement and its contribution in students’ performance goal orientation and academic achievement during their elementary schooling. The study adopted correlational design. Nine (04 boys and 05 girls) Middle/Elementary schools were randomly selected from 233 (140 girls and, 93 boys) Middle/ Elementary schools of Lahore. 324 participants (180 girls and 144 boys) from grade 6 were conveniently selected from these randomly selected 09 public Middle/elementary schools. 324 parents (mother/father) of above mentioned students were also included in this Study. Two instruments, Student Performance Goal Orientation (SPGO) and Parental Involvement Scale (PIS) were used as research instruments. It was quantitative study based on descriptive research. Survey method was used for data collection. The study found positive association between parental involvement and students’ learning outcomes achievement. Positive association between students’ performance goal orientation and students’ learning achievement was also found. It was observed that parents can increase the students’ motivation level and help them for their achievements. More than half of the students were of the views that parental involvement enhances the student’s learning achievement.</em></p> 2020-06-25T09:19:08+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/94 Effect of Molesting Behavior of Male Athletes on Participation and Motivation of Female Athletes at Public Sector Universities of Sindh Province 2020-07-02T18:47:10+00:00 Dr. Shireen Bhatti Dr.shireenbhatti83@gmail.com Dr. Salah Udin Khan dr.salahudinkhan@gmail.com Saddam Akbar Justsaddamakbar4@gmail.com <p><em>The main objectives of study was to determine effect of molesting behavior of male athletes in the perspective of participation of the female athletes and effect of molesting behavior of male athletes on the motivation of female athletes at public universities in Sindh province. The study was descriptive cross sectional .The Purposive sampling method was employed for the collection of the data. Female athletes who competed at intercollegiate, intervarsity, provincial and national level of public universities of Sindh province were subject of this study. The self-developed questionnaire was administrated for data collection. There were 85 female athletes from twenty public universities who participated in present study. The findings revealed that there is negative significant effect of molesting behavior of male athletes on motivation and participation of female athletes at public universities of Sindh. The result revealed declining of level of motivation, impairment of performance, restriction or withdrawal from participation or pursuing sports career and confinement to home due to feeling of insecurity due to exposed rate of sexual molesting behavior of male athletes.</em></p> 2020-06-25T08:43:54+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/177 Developing Linkage Between Universities and Industries in Pakistan 2020-07-02T18:47:12+00:00 Dr. Rabia Khatoon rabyahedu@yahoo.com Dr. Faridullah Khan farid678@hotmail.com Dr. Muhammad Naseer Ud Din naseerkust@yahoo.com <p><em>This research study was carried out to investigate the facts and establish the present state of the link between Industry and university in Pakistan especially focusing on the present scenario and current operating systems, the research study further examined the main elements impacting and manipulating on the association and potential zones of participation and collaboration. </em>An example of 33 (male 23 and female 10) comprised of Deans and Heads of branches of the colleges and agents of Higher Education Commission<em>). The study revealed that universities and industries had associations and connections through contact workplaces established in (HEC) Higher Education Commission. This office has so many functions like research and development (Research and Development) activities, preparing and manage visiting lectureship, training the staff, and also plan joint actions for educational planning, improvement, and as well as both can work to guide each other. Most definitely, the study further revealed that although there is mutual coordination is found at the national level but unfortunately internationally the same coordination is not found in the same spirit in Pakistan amongst commerce and universities. Moreover, this study also revealed that the coordination among these agencies plays so many functions like personal contacts, guidance function, meetings with each other, educational synergistic preparing programs, Research &amp; Development activities, boards of trustees, panels, courses, and meetings. Thus, the linkages were influenced by numerous components which included government strategy, the executives of the college just as the industry. It was additionally discovered that there were certainly a few issues these included, absence of coordination, scarcity of funds to perform research, lack of enthusiasm on the part of employees, absence of research and development exercises, absence of required capability, conflicting venture of businesses. In addition, there was a scarcity of incubation Center, advance parks, and no basic assessment and check and balance framework. These feasible domains of cooperation covered assurance of licensed innovation, awards, gifts, donations, grants, classes/workshops, and vocation directing cooperative research and development projects, and guidance administrations.</em></p> 2020-06-25T08:36:33+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/138 Exploring Principal’s Leadership Competencies in Academic and Administrative Areas at Govt. Secondary Schools in the Province Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 2020-07-02T18:47:13+00:00 Gauhar Zaman pfgphsrsc@yahoo.com Dr. Saqib Shehzad pfgphsrsc@yahoo.com Dr. Hafiz M. Irshadullah pfgphsrsc@yahoo.com <p><em>The present study has been conducted for the identification of Principals leadership’s competencies in academic and administrative areas at the secondary school level of education in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The population of this research study encompasses all 1422 Secondary School Principals. Random sampling technique was applied to select 377 school heads as respondents. To conduct the research study, data was collected through questionnaires, which were further tabulated for analysis through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), and analytical tools of mean, standard deviation, and correlation were used. It is found that the majority of the respondents responded that they had properly managed human resources, and performed academic and administrative activities for the promotion of education in the institutions. It is recommended that the level of leadership in administrative and academic areas be improved with modern approaches.</em></p> 2020-06-25T08:30:13+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/105 Effect of Organizational Climate upon the Job Satisfaction of Instructors Physical Education (IPEs) 2020-07-02T18:47:15+00:00 Muhammad Safdar Luqman gghssharnoli@gmail.com Dr. Syed Zia-ul-Islam safdarkhan821@gmail.com Ms. Afshan Jabeen safdarkhan821@gmail.com <p><em>The main purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of Organizational Climate (OC) on Job Satisfaction (JS) of Instructors Physical Education working in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.&nbsp; For this purpose, a sample of 112 Instructors was selected through a stratified random sampling method. An adapted organizational climate and job satisfaction scale was used for data collection. Pearson product Correlation and regression analysis were applied as inferential statistics with the help of SPSS version 20. The result of the study depicts that organizational climate plays a significant role in the job satisfaction of physical education teachers. A supportive and conducive climate enhances the satisfaction level of physical education teachers.</em></p> 2020-06-25T08:24:57+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/122 US Withdrawal from Afghanistan: Latest Development and Security Situation (2020) 2020-07-02T18:47:17+00:00 Dr. Muhammad Tariq tariqawkum252@gmail.com Dr. Muhammad Rizwan tariqawkum252@gmail.com Dr. Manzoor Ahmad tariqawkum252@gmail.com <p><em>This paper discusses the US engagement in Afghanistan with particular reference to their withdrawal within a specified period of fourteen months. An agreement has been reached between the US and Taliban on February 29, 2020, at Doha (Qatar) followed by the intra-Afghan talks, which is expected to bring lasting peace and stability in the country. The issues of deadlock between the Afghan government and the Taliban and the pandemic COVID-19 are some of the obstacles in the way of peace. The theory of bargain provides a theoretical framework for the paper. The paper focuses on the post-withdrawal scenario of the US troops and ground realities that will help in prognosticating the future of Afghanistan. Keeping in view the post-US-Taliban agreement, it is difficult to say with certainty that peace and stability may shape the future destiny of the country since more than 1,300 casualties have happened in Afghanistan during the last three months despite the singing of the agreement.</em></p> 2020-06-25T08:15:48+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/173 Teachers’ Perceptions and Practices of Cooperative Learning and Its Influence on Classroom Learning 2020-07-02T18:47:19+00:00 Ms. Fozia Bashir farsomal@yahoo.com Dr. Muhammad Nisar nisarkust74@gmail.com Mr. Anar Gul agul9291@gmail.com <p><em>This study was launched in order to contribute to the body of researchers conducted for investigating teachers’ perceptions and practices about cooperative learning in the classroom. The main objective of this study was to learn about the reasons and perceptions of teachers why they choose to implement or not to implement cooperative learning strategies and how the use of the same influences their class classroom teaching and learning the process. The benefits of the cooperative learning strategies are supported by multiple research studies and conclude in students' intellectual performances along with behavioral improvements. Copious research studies focus on the benefits and methods of the cooperative learning process while lacking teachers’ perceptions and practices of cooperative learning. Evaluation of teachers’ perceptions and practices of cooperative learning in this research study was conducted at the secondary level in district Kohat. The study was descriptive in nature, the questionnaire was developed by the researcher with the kind and immense consultation of the supervisor. The population of the study comprises all the teachers teaching at the Secondary level at district Kohat while 50 teachers were selected using convenient sampling techniques. Keeping in view the cultural restriction only female teachers were taken as the sample of the study. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and central tendencies. Analysis of the quantitative questionnaire showed that most of the teachers like and tend to use cooperative learning strategies. The use of these strategies makes their classes not only conducive to learning and but also develops social skills, self-esteem, cooperation and confidence in students.</em></p> 2020-06-25T08:06:30+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/157 Problems of Working Journalists in Pakistan 2020-07-02T18:47:21+00:00 Dr. Ayesha Qamar ayeshaqamar@fjwu.edu.pk Dr. Samia Manzoor samia.manzoor@bzu.edu.pk Ms. Aqsa Iram Shahzadi mrsaqsairam@bzu.edu.pk <p><em>Journalists around the world are facing difficult situations while pursuing their careers. The situation of Pakistani journalists is not different. Lack of safety and other incentives offered by their organizations are the major problems faced by them. The present study aimed to analyze the problems faced by Pakistani journalists regarding their professional chores. The researchers used Maslow’s hierarchal model and Herzberg’s Motivation Hygiene theory to give a comprehensive picture of working conditions and their effects on journalists’ performance. The quantitative approach was utilized by the researchers in the form of a survey method to highlight the problems faced by journalists. The results showed that the majority of journalists are not satisfied with their current job scenarios. They are confronting too many difficulties including Job security, threats, professional training, tight deadlines, and excessive work hours. Moreover, the respondents unveiled that these problems are adversely affecting their work performance by causing certain physical and mental health issues.</em></p> 2020-06-25T08:02:44+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/139 Preferences of the Teachers in Employing Revised Blooms Taxonomy in their Instructions 2020-07-02T18:47:23+00:00 Dr. Rani Gul msrani637@yahoo.com Shazia Kanwal shaziamd09@gmail.com Dr. Sadia Suleman Khan ssuleman_khan786@yahoo.com <p><em>In the present study teachers’ preferences in their instructional methods were integrated with the revised model of blooms taxonomy to seek out how much they are incorporating the instructional approaches linked with all six domains of revised bloom taxonomy. The study has also sought out the impact of teachers’ qualifications and teaching experiences on teachers’ preferences for these instructional approaches. The findings show that teachers often use the higher-order domain, while other large domains were found on average. The academic qualification and teaching experience have not found significantly correlated with these instructional approaches. The study suggests that teachers spend their time designing teaching methodologies that can promote higher-level thought skills for students, to improve their student learning qualifications. Teachers can adopt methodologies to enable their students to think and discuss the content, encourage discussion, stimulate students to find information themselves, create cause and effect, encourage student opinion, insert several characters and map concepts in the real world. Besides, additional teaching support can also be expected from educational departments and administrations.</em></p> 2020-06-25T07:58:44+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/144 Students’ Outcomes of Implementing Knowledge Exchange Teaching Method in the Classroom: An Action Research 2020-07-02T18:47:25+00:00 Sheraz Khan sherazk0003@gmail.com Dr. Amir Zaman amirzaman69@yahoo.com Dr. Abdul Ghaffar ghaffar75@yahoo.com <p><em>Knowledge exchange method teaching is a growing trend. The main objective of this work to see the effect of knowledge exchange method teaching in the mathematics classrooms and thus sees its outcomes in terms of learning and classroom environment. Action research was adopted for this study. Four cycles were implemented with the focus of different contents in each cycle. Each cycle lasted for a week. The data was collected through observation and students interview. The results showed significant improvement in their classroom learning environment as well as in learning. The students felt enthusiastic about the new teaching methods and were eager to participate. It is recommended that teachers should be trained to implement the knowledge exchange method in the classroom.</em></p> 2020-06-25T07:52:03+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/201 Development News in Print Media of Pakistan: The Case of Urdu and English Press 2020-07-02T18:47:27+00:00 Dr. Babar Hussain Shah dr.adnan@iub.edu.pk Dr. Malik Adnan dr.adnan@iub.edu.pk Dr. Irem Sultana dr.adnan@iub.edu.pk <p><em>This research was aimed to explore the coverage of development related news in Pakistani print media. To analyze the coverage, two leading newspapers of Pakistan- daily Dawn and daily Jang were selected by the researchers. Both are leading newspapers of Urdu and English language. The study is based on content analysis with a purposive sampling technique. All development news appearing on front, back and inner pages of newspapers were analyzed. The period for selection of news was from November 1<sup>st,</sup> 2018 to December 31<sup>st</sup> 2018. <strong>In this study, all those news are unit of analysis which deal with the core issue of development in any form. </strong>Results indicate that during that period overall 572 news stories appeared in newspapers out of which 271 appeared in Urdu newspapers and 301 appeared in English newspapers. It was explored that most published news was about the infrastructure category of development (20.09%). It was also revealed that the least number of stories (2.75%) appeared on the front pages of the newspapers.&nbsp; It was found that overall 9.09% news stories were accompanied by images. Results indicate that the English press provided more space to development news than Urdu newspapers.</em></p> 2020-06-25T07:49:04+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/188 Effect of Leadership Management and Resource Management on Teacher Satisfaction in Higher Education Institutions: An Empirical Investigation 2020-07-02T18:47:29+00:00 Ms. Humaira Tufail humairagulkust@gmail.com Dr. Faridullah Khan farid678@hotmail.com Dr. Muhammad Naseer Ud Din naseerkust@yahoo.com <p><em>The study assesses the effect of leadership management and resource management practices on teacher’s job satisfaction. This study focused on the core activities of the leadership management and resource management and the characteristic which had a direct relation with the quality of the education and satisfying teachers of the university. Using multistage random sampling method, the sample data of 985 teachers was collected from public and private sector higher education institutions of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The researcher has designed the close end questionnaire for data collection. Statistical tool was applied to analyses the data. The descriptive statistics of the study revealed that leadership management and resource management was found to be satisfied among all components. The Pearson correlation revealed that leadership management and resource management have significant relation with faculty satisfaction in HEI.</em></p> 2020-06-25T07:39:11+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/187 Unburdening the Pedagogy of the Oppressed: A Case Study of ELT Classrooms at University Level in South Punjab 2020-07-02T18:47:31+00:00 Dr. Sarwat Jabeen Sarwat.awan4@gmail.com Abdul Rashid abdulrashid@bzu.edu.pk Dr. Samia Naz Samiamalik7@yahoo.com <p><em>Recently, the concept of Critical thinking got much significance in the teaching and learning process. Thinking creatively and critically in the English language beckons our representation in different domains of development as well. The present study is aimed to investigate the on-going teaching-learning process of English Language Teaching at University Level in South Punjab from the perspective of critical thinking. The theoretical insights have been taken from Freire’s Banking concept of education in his seminal work, Pedagogy of the Oppressed (2018). The findings of the study reveal that our ELT classrooms are lacking the creativity and critical thinking at large. Further in our classrooms, the Banking Model of teaching is being practiced where a student remains passive and the teacher is considered as the ultimate source of knowledge. It points out that our teaching and learning process is moving on some faulty lines which need revisions and amendments. It is suggested that the Problem Posing Model of teaching and learning may be adopted in our ELT Classrooms so that our graduates at the university level may think critically and independently.</em></p> 2020-06-25T07:32:33+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/159 Relationship of Organizational Structure, Physical Facilities and Leadership Practices of Principals with School improvement: An Evidence from Pakistan 2020-07-02T18:47:32+00:00 Abdul Malik abdulmalikasmai@gmail.com Dr. Habib Elahi abdulmalikasmai@gmail.com Dr. Syed Afzal Shah abdulmalikasmai@gmail.com <p><em>The present study was focused to know about the relationship of organizational structure, physical facilities, and leadership practices with school improvement. A survey research method was adopted with questionnaires. The sample included 224 principals, 896 senior school teachers from the seven districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.&nbsp; The stratified random sampling technique was used for the selection of participating institutions among 7 divisions of the province. For the collection of research data, the researcher developed the questionnaires. For this instrument, after passing through the pilot testing and experts' opinions, all the instructed improvements and modifications worked out. The analysis of data revealed that there is a positive significant correlation of organizational structure, physical facilities, and leadership practices with school improvement.</em></p> 2020-06-25T07:27:37+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/167 Socio-Economic Impact of Seasonal Employment on the Nomads with Reference to Date’s Fruits: A Case Study of District Khairpur 2020-07-02T18:47:35+00:00 Syed Akram Ali Shah jillaniakram@gmail.com Prof. Dr. Muhammad Saleem Rahpoto rahpoto64@hotmail.com Dr. Ghulam Muhammad Mangnejo mangnejogm81@gmail.com <p><em>Hunger starvation, natural disasters, droughts and the clan enmities make people to migrate from one region to another region. Also sometimes people migrate as they inherit the habit, of migration. This research paper is aimed to study the socio-economic implication of the seasonal employment in Khairpur in date’s fruit season regarding nomads coming in the season and the implications of the migration on the life of the indigenous people as well as on the nomad’s life. The subject material has been collected through the field survey and the interviews conducted by the stakeholders, like the growers, traders, nomads, and those with whom the nomads interact during their stay in District Khairpur. District Khairpur is situated in Sindh Province of Pakistan is one of the most opulent District, it is embedded with the surface as well as mineral resources. But, its fame is due to date’s fruit which is the major factor of the nomadic flow into this district. Also, the date’s season has proved to be poverty alleviation than any other factor. The research results show that every year nearly 3 million to 3.5 million people come to this district and each year almost 2 Billion Pak Rupees are being taken away to different regions as to be the remittances. Besides, the nomadic flow not only proves to be beneficial for the dates fruit growers but also for the merchants and the vendors who also earn almost double in the season of date’s fruit. Especially the hotels and vegetable shops become almost short of the consumers' goods in the season. Finally, some measures are proposed and a brief conclusion is given herewith. This paper also has analyzed the determinants and the consequences of nomadic migration into District Khairpur.</em></p> 2020-06-25T07:22:31+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/172 Fun and Amusement in Teaching: Exploring Various Aspects of Teaching of Mathematics at Elementary Level 2020-07-02T18:47:37+00:00 Dr. Nasrin Akhter nasrin_cs2005@hotmail.com Dr. Munir Khan drmunirkhan71@gmail.com Dr. Muhammad Asghar Ali aamasgharali@gmail.com <p><em>Mathematics as a subject is considered difficult as well as interesting and enjoyable. children like its challenge, its clarity, and the fact that you know when you are right. The solution to a problem makes a feeling of excitement and satisfaction. The objectives of the study were (i) to explore the fun and amusement in teaching mathematics at the elementary level (ii) to review the existing and required facilities at the elementary level (iii) to find out how students take fun in learning mathematics at the elementary level. Four elementary schools were taken as a sample of the study. The questionnaires were used with the teachers and students separately n the themes related to the fun, amusement, and effectiveness in teaching Mathematics. On the basis of analysis, it was found that the majority of the teachers were teaching the out-dated curriculum which does not satisfy the socio-economic needs of students. Although teachers s and students had fun in their teaching and learning process. It is found that the elementary teachers and students were not up to the mark because they were less equipped as compared to the physical and other basic facilities which should be available in the schools. It is proposed that all schools, including the English medium schools, must follow the education policy in the teaching of mathematics and curriculum. Furthermore, the trained and qualified teachers should be appointed on merit both in the government and private schools.</em></p> 2020-06-25T07:17:32+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/200 Psychometric Properties of the Urdu Translation of Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) in Pakistan 2020-07-02T18:47:40+00:00 Amna Ajmal amnajmal25@hotmail.com Dr. Syeda Shahida Batool amnajmal25@hotmail.com <p><em>In recent times, several types of research focused on assessing mindfulness by using a variety of existing scales. Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) comes forth as a precise and comprehensive scale for measuring awareness and attention in daily life. Previously, MAAS has been translated into Spanish, French, and Chinese. Whereas, the present study examined the accuracy and effectiveness of Urdu Translation of the Mindfulness Attention Awareness scale. The triple-step translation process of Brislin was adopted by which cross-language validation and confirmatory factor analysis was done. The 15-item MAAS which was filled by 205 married couples and the findings showed a good reliability, and one-factor solution fit for MAAS was found in confirmatory factor analysis. In the evaluation of the Urdu rendition of the MAAS, it has been found that this scale emerges as an accurate and reasonable instrument to measure the level of mindfulness among Pakistani Married populace.</em></p> 2020-06-25T07:12:07+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/203 Development and Validation of Module for Teaching Human Rights at Higher Education Level 2020-07-02T18:47:41+00:00 Haroon Ur Rashid haroonurrashid129@gmail.com Ashfaque Ahmad Shah multanxa@gmail.com Dr. Muhammad Sarwar drsarwar@ymail.com <p><em>The study focused on the development and validation of modules for teaching Human Rights (HRs). The researchers developed modules consisted of nine units, based on previous modules and literature. One group pre-test-post-test (pre-experimental) design was used to validate the module. A Self-reported 5-point Likert scale (22-item) was developed for pre- and post-test assessment. Forty-seven (47) final year students of BS education were pre-tested, 27 hours treatment was given to them through the teaching of Human Rights Values (HRVs) by using Modular Approach (MA), and again tested. Data were analyzed by applying a paired sample t-test. A significant difference was found in students’ attitudes towards learning HRs before and after the treatment. The mean gain score of the learners was higher on the post-test as compared to that of on pre-test. Hence, it is concluded that the module for teaching HRs has been proved to be valid and effective. Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan may recommend a separate course on Human Rights Education (HRE) at BS level, based on MA. Special training to use this module and the assessment tool to university teachers may be arranged by either the local authorities at the universities or the National Academy of Higher Education (NAHE) by HEC Islamabad-Pakistan.</em></p> 2020-06-25T07:08:33+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/174 Basic Quality Education; The Importance of Integrating Different Approaches for Quality Pre-School Education in Pakistan 2020-07-02T18:47:43+00:00 Dr. Waqar Un Nisa Faizi faizi@icp.edu.pk Dr. Anila Fatima Shakil faizi@icp.edu.pk Ms. Fozia Bashir farsomal@yahoo.com <p><em>Quality education is one of the key indicators for economic development of a country. Consequently, most developing countries have committed themselves in several international forums not only to provide education but also to make it a basic right for everyone. So far, several developing countries have managed to make giant leaps towards this direction. For instance, provision of basic education has been made free and compulsory in countries like Pakistan and Kenya beside other countries. The purpose of this research paper is to analyze the different approaches used in teaching preschoolers in developing countries and to understand how to improve the quality of education through integrating those approaches.it relies on qualitative research method and is basically based on secondary data. The focus of this research is on different methods or approaches used in teaching preschoolers, their effectiveness, and that of an integrated system or approach. It discovered that integrating the different approaches leads to a better-quality education as compared to using each approach separately.</em></p> 2020-06-25T07:00:14+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/118 Foregrounding of War as a Socio-political Issue in Hamid Khan’s Poetry 2020-07-02T18:47:45+00:00 Abdul Karim Khan akarim.khan@yahoo.com <p><em>Hamid Khan uses the tools of foregrounding (deviation and parallelism) to project war and its devastating effects on society. This paper aims at searching for the projection of the theme of war through deviation and parallelism in the two poetic collections of Khan, i.e. “Velvet of Loss” and “Pale Leaf (Three Voices)”. The data are analysed on the basis of the theory of foregrounding. Apart from the apparent reference to war zones, the implications of the horrors of war, at global level, are found. These devastating effects include hopelessness, insecurity, homelessness, losing of the near and dear for ever leaving behind orphans, widows, and patrons.</em></p> 2020-06-25T06:55:57+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/132 Analyzing the Inhibitors of MSMES’ Access to Banks’ Financing: Evidence from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan 2020-07-02T18:47:48+00:00 Manzoor Ahmad Khan manzoor.finance@gmail.com Sher Kamal sherkamal@gmail.com Ikram Ullah Khan Ikram.bnu@gmail.com <p><em>This study analyses the constraints that impede micro-scale, small-scale, and medium-scale enterprises (MSMEs) from accessing banks’ finances in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province, Pakistan. In this regard, a survey questionnaire was administered where 410 MSMEs were randomly selected for data collection from the manufacturing, retailing, services, and wholesaling sectors in districts Bannu and Peshawar. After the data screening, we conducted correlations and multiple regression analyses on the final valid data. Our results indicate that low business production, firms’ size, and gender discrimination of MSMEs’ entrepreneurs were the main barriers that restrict MSMEs to access banks’ finances. The findings have newer implications for government, concerned banks, and the MSMEs to make effective plans to properly address the obstacles that impede the MSMEs’ access to banks’ finances in KP.</em></p> 2020-06-25T06:54:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/129 Changing Political Trends in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa: A Case Study of Malakand (1968-2013) 2020-07-02T18:47:50+00:00 Junaid Babar junaid@gmail.com Aabida Lateef junaid@gmail.com Nasrullah Khan nasrullahafd123@gmail.com <p><em>This paper delineates political and cultural shifts in the Malakand district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. The paper challenges dominant perceptions and discourses about the people of KP in the post 9/11 context and presents an alternative version of history and politics. It traces the history of peasant movements and indigenous resistance (1968-1977) for gaining social, economic, and political equality. It is argued that state policies, the influence of regional and global powers have brought radical changes in the whole province in general and in Malakand in particular. In addition to the role of state’s ruling elites and international agencies, the emphasis is on changing demographic and economic conditions which favored religious right at a deep societal level. Qualitative method has been adopted while conducting this research work which involves extensive fieldwork in the Malakand district.&nbsp; Archival and vernacular sources have also been consulted for tracing the history of progressive politics in the province.</em></p> 2020-06-25T06:50:30+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/114 Pedagogic Value of ‘An Anthology of Short Stories’: A Course, Taught to Postgraduates at National University of Modern Languages (Peshawar’s Campus) 2020-07-02T18:47:52+00:00 Muhammad Waqar Ali waqarali@icp.edu.pk Dr. Syed Shujaat Ali s_shojaat_ali@yahoo.com Shah Khalid shahkhalid2014@gmail.com <p><em>This study was carried out to evaluate the pedagogical appropriateness of the prescribed course. For the pedagogical analysis of the course, the theoretical framework of the investigation included four components: instructional objectives, content analysis, teaching method and strategies, and assessment. The instructional objectives were analyzed against the revised Bloomian taxonomy, and contents of the course were evaluated against the following parameters: intent, content, target, effect, critique, and response. Data was collected from two types of respondents—teachers and students—through semi-structured interviews, using convenient sampling. The collected data were analyzed qualitatively. Along with that, a few short stories from the anthology were analyzed following the criterion mentioned for content analysis. The study deduced that the course lacked in explicit mention of the objectives. Despite some reservations of the respondents, the contents of the course were found pedagogically appropriate for the said level. In the end, the paper offers a few suggestions, keeping in view the responses, to enhance pedagogical appropriateness of the course.</em></p> 2020-06-25T06:45:50+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 sjesr