sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs <p><iframe src="https://sjesr.org.pk" width="100%" height="3050"> </iframe></p> en-US info@sjesr.org.pk (Muhammad Idrees) info@sjesr.org.pk (Web Admin) Sat, 06 Mar 2021 17:31:27 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Investigating the Learning Styles Preferences of First-year B.Ed. Students Studying in a Public Sector University of Northern Sindh, Pakistan https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/578 <p><em>In a student-centered teaching and learning environment, students' needs, potentials, and learning styles are considered crucial. Therefore, teachers need to understand what learning styles students prefer to teach effectively. In the current study, a quantitative research approach has been adopted in this study within it descriptive research designed was used. To determine the preferred learning styles of B.Ed. students, VARK (Visual, Aural, Read/Write, and Kinesthetic) learning style model has been used. Since the data was collected using the VARK questionnaire, simple random sampling techniques were used. The reliability of the instrument was calculated through Cronbach α= 0.75. The sample of the study consists of 140 Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) students of a Public Sector University located in Northern Sindh, Pakistan. The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics (percentages mean and standard deviation) to determine the most preferred style of learning of students. The results of the study revealed that 27.93% of the B.Ed. students have preferred aural learning style, 25.13% kinaesthetic learning style, 22.65% visual style of learning and 21.09% preferred read/write learning style respectively. To conclude that the majority of the B.Ed. students preferred aural learning style and the least preferred style of learning was read/write. Hence, B.Ed. students were driven towards an aural learning style. This study suggests that students learning styles are influenced by the teacher’s teaching style. Therefore, the teacher can determine his/her teaching style by using the score of the VARK questionnaire. The study recommends that another study can be conducted by the teachers to learn about the larger number of students’ preferred learning styles. The teacher can also address a mixture of learning styles. In the classroom, there are always diverse learners. In that case, the teacher can use integrated teaching style which can address all learners preferred teaching style.</em></p> Sania Nasir, Dr. Shahid Hussain Mughal, Amjad Ali Rind Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/578 Sat, 06 Mar 2021 06:25:30 +0000 Functional Movement Screening: A study on National Level Judo Players of Pakistan https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/580 <p><strong><em>Background: </em></strong><em>Functional Movement Screening (FMS) is a tool to screen the musculoskeletal factors of injury or dysfunctionality patterns in sports. The establishment of functional movement screening (FMS) has built a bridge between physiotherapy, rehabilitation, and physical training, to realize the integration of multiple disciplines. This study tends to investigate musculoskeletal risk factors through the FMS of Judo players in Pakistan. <strong>Method: </strong>A total of 10 national-level athletes were selected who had been national-level competitors in Pakistan. Different movement patterns/drills prescribed by FMS were performed by them under a secure environment. These movement patterns were designed to provide observable performance of basic locomotor, scheming, and stabilizing movements by putting a person in severe positions where weaknesses and imbalances become noticeable if proper movement and motor control are not utilized。FMS score sheet was used for marking along with total scores of all drills. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Results showed that the majority of the Judo athletes were found under standardized grading out of whom only three players were able to get marked above 16 out of 21. Athletes were unaware of FMS and the majority of athletes failed to perform FMS drills which caused them problems in their balance, flexibility, and agility.</em></p> Ali Raza, Yasmeen Tabassum, Wu Hao Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/580 Sat, 06 Mar 2021 06:24:58 +0000 Articles 370 and 371 of the Indian Constitution in the Context of Kashmir https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/601 <p><em>Occupied Jammu and Kashmir is not the only state in the Indian constitution with special status but in addition to Article 370, there is also an Article 371 in the Indian Constitution which has 10 sub-clauses that give special status to other 9 states and territories. The nature of relations of these states is explained in these clauses of article 371 which is very helpful to understand article 370 of the Indian constitution. &nbsp;As far as Kashmir and Article 370 are concerned, the Indian government of Narendra Modi has axed the Indian position itself as all other states with constitutional guarantees are suspicious about their future in the Indian union. By repealing Article 370, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi has brought to an end the false or true annexation of Kashmir with India. Thus, if there was any annexation of Kashmir with India, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi had cut down that relation on 5 August 2019. Article 370 is not a myth, it is a historical fact as Article 370 specifies that apart from Foreign Affairs, Defense, Communications and subsidiary matters (matters that were specified in the Instrument of Accession to India), in all other matters and subjects Parliament of India needs the approval of assembly of the people of Kashmir. Thus, Kashmir residents lived under a distinct set of laws, together with those linked to fundamental rights, citizenship, and ownership of property as compared to other citizens of India. Occupied Jammu and Kashmir were the only states to be stripped of its status of special unite of Indian federation. As of August 5, 2019, India had 29 states in principle, but with the repeal of Article 370, there are now 28 states. Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s actions regarding Occupied Jammu and Kashmir have raised concerns in these 28 states especially the states with special status like Kashmir. These concerns and reservations will sow the seeds of insincerity in the Indian Union. Expressing concern over national security, the Indian Home Ministry spokesman said separatist activities were on the rise in 200 of the country's 600 districts. Not only separatist movements but racial conflicts and caste disputes have increased after the August 5 action in Kashmir. The main reason for this unrest in India is that the states with special status under article 370 and 371 have started to ponder the federation of India as a union that is established through a system of repression. In the intellectual circles, these development are not normal as intellectuals of India are not happy with the approach of Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi as they are taking it dangerous for the federation of India that will be left with no confidence of the federating unite.</em></p> Dr. Karim Haider Syed, Dr. Imran Khan Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/601 Sat, 06 Mar 2021 06:24:29 +0000 New Land, New Rubrics: Presenting Diasporic Experience of Asian-American Immigrants in Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni’s Selected Short Stories https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/588 <p><em>This research explored the lives and worldviews of Asian immigrants in the United States presented in Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni's stories in The Unknown Errors of Our Lives (2001). Central characters in Divakaruni's narratives embody the sufferings of immigrants in the New Land. Precisely it was proposed to study the stories from the perspective of the diaspora. In this collection, the researcher has selected five stories, including "Mrs. Dutta Writes a Letter," "The Intelligence of Wild Things," "The Blooming Season for Cacti," "The Names of Stars in Bengali," and "The Unknown Errors of Our Lives." Since the characters like Mrs. Dutta, Mira, Radhika, and Kahuku's mother emigrate from India to different zones of America, they combat issues of cultural contradiction, identity crisis, disruption and family strives. Unlike them, Tarun, Mrs. Dutta's son, and her family are assimilated into the American society, whereas the characters such as Mrs. Dutta, Didi, and Mira recurrently remember their original house and early childhood days with friends. It is because they are fragmented and frustrated in America. The study concluded that the characters in her stories are ambitious and want to live a luxurious life but because of the lack of opportunities, they could not fulfill their desires and even some of them decided to return to their homeland to get a better life.</em></p> Hassan Bin Zubair, Akifa Imtiaz, Asma Kashif Shahzad Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/588 Sat, 06 Mar 2021 06:23:52 +0000 Joint Forest Management Rules: Law and Practice in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/534 <p><em>The study’s main aim was to provide an in-depth insight into the Community Participation (also called Joint Forest Management or JFM) Rules enforced by the Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) in 2004 to reform the KP Environment Department from a “policing model” to a participatory one. It sought to find out; whether the JFM rules are followed in letter and spirit or the environment department of the province is still using age-old policies without involving the local communities in the management of forests. The study has uncovered the departmental and bureaucratic constraints towards the JFM Rules that stop the department from embarking on a journey towards a more participatory, inclusive, transparent, accountable, and sustainable management as well as development of forest resources. A qualitative research design was selected for this study and data was collected from a sample assembled on quota sampling technique with the quotas of respondents: 10 forest owners (people who have ownership rights in forests. 5 were taken from Malakand Division and 5 from Hazara Division of KP), 10 forest users (people who occasionally or permanently live in or near forests and use its resources in an arrangement with the forest owners. 5 were taken from Malakand and 5&nbsp; from Hazara again), 10 government officials (5 from the environment department and 5 from the legal fraternity) and finally 10 environmental activists (including 5 female activists). Themes were developed after carrying out semi-structured in-depth interviews using interview guides. One of the major findings of the research were the sweeping and discretionary powers of the Divisional Forest Officer (DFO) which hinders the progress of JFM as DFO is not only the final authority on registration of a JFM Committee but can influence various other aspects of community participation and JFM like planning, funding and termination. It was also found that the territorial or protection staff (like Ranger, Forester &amp; Guard) were still calling the shots in a top-down approach instead of a bottom-to-top approach by the mobilization and developmental staff (like Community Development Officer or CDO &amp; Female Forest Extensionist or FFE) despite the JFM Rules. It was revealed that there is a great lack of funds and financial independence of the Directorate of CDEGAD (Community Development, Extension, Gender and Development) which is responsible for implementing community participation and JFM. The directorate staff is mostly financially dependent upon the discretion of the DFO. Even after 16 years, the environment department has not internalized JFM Rules. There was a lack of concern by government top management towards addressing this huge environmental problem of the lack of implementation of JFM despite the recent Billion and 10 Billion Trees "Tsunami" Afforestation Projects with the help of the UN under the Bonn Challenge. A very small number of community members reported that they are participating in the forestry and wildlife activities with the environment department. "Rubber stamp" and "token" participation were reported just to give legal cover to the departmental activities and a photo session for the social media instead of truly real incentive participation to achieve sustainable management and development of forest resources. There is a great if not an organized resistance of the majority of forestry staff to JFM Rules and keep these rules hidden under the carpet to carry on the traditional approach which is harmful for the communities, the department, the forests, and the wildlife in the long run. Lack of implementation of JFM Rules also facilitates corruption. Without local support and knowledge, the poverty in the forest-dependent communities cannot be eradicated. Lessons from Nepal's social forestry should be learned and utilized for KP's JFM. Nevertheless, the recent projects by the Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf led KP and Federal governments have given environmental activists a great glimmer of hope but the long-term positive results of it will depend upon its continuity by the future governments. The positions of CDOs, Female CDOs, and SOs (Social Organizers) need to be strengthened with legal powers regarding JFM. Several environmental policy and regulation needs were also identified in this study, followed by several recommendations for the environment department, provincial government, and civil society for bold and ambitious community-led forestry and wildlife conservation projects.</em></p> Muniba Nafees, Muhammad Zubair, Abdullah Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/534 Sat, 06 Mar 2021 06:23:23 +0000 Poststructuralist Perspectives on Language and Identity: Implications for English Language Teaching Research in Pakistan https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/592 <p><em>Before the 1990s, Second Language Acquisition (SLA) research conceptualized language as a system or structure that the language learner acquired and developed, mediated by the learner's motivation and his/her strategies learning a language. With “the social turn” in social sciences, the language came to be viewed from a social constructionist perspective as a socially situated practice influenced by various social, cultural, class, gender, and ethnic factors. This shift towards the social aspects of language learning marks the change from a psycholinguistic and structuralist theory of language to a poststructuralist one. This paper reviews the development of poststructuralist research foci in language and identity studies in applied linguistics. The paper argues that broadening SLA research purview is useful, for example, in illuminating how social class mediates access to learning powerful languages like English and how indigenous languages suffer shrinking of use domains due to the hegemony of powerful languages. The paper attempts to tease out the implication of this research body for English language learning research in Pakistan's multilingual context. It concludes with a few suggestions for more socially-oriented language learning research in Pakistan.</em></p> Dr. Imdad Ullah Khan, Dr. Ghani Rahman, Dr. Abdul Hamid Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/592 Sat, 06 Mar 2021 06:22:51 +0000 S/words versus S/words: A Bidirectional Reading of the Post/colonial Fictions https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/576 <p><em>The article explicates the polemical schema of the novels produced by the British and the Indian writers apropos the historical event of the anticolonial rebellion/ revolution (1857). Grounded in the idea of creating a dialogue between the colonial and counter discursive texts, the research invokes Richard Lane’s bidirectional approach to explain how conflictual political visions trigger the skewed versions of the great defiance. The novelists of both nations have produced prolific fictional yields to represent the epic event. However, keeping in mind the scope of the study, the researchers have delimited their focus upon two of the representative novels, one for each nation: </em><a href="http://www.amazon.com/s/ref=ntt_athr_dp_sr_1?_encoding=UTF8&amp;field-author=Louis%20Tracy&amp;search-alias=digital-text&amp;sort=relevancerank"><em>Louis Tracy</em></a><em>’s The Red Year: A Story of the Indian Mutiny (1907) for the English version and </em><a href="http://www.amazon.com/s/ref=dp_byline_sr_book_1?ie=UTF8&amp;field-author=Basavaraj+Naikar&amp;search-alias=books&amp;text=Basavaraj+Naikar&amp;sort=relevancerank"><em>Basavaraj Naikar</em></a><em>’s The Sun behind the Cloud (2001) for the Indian one. Each of the novels voices the sloganized rhetoric of the respective nation while narrating the colossal clash, that is, Tracy portrays the mutiny as nefarious recalcitrance of the Indian rebels to disrupt the civilizational program and Naikar presents it as an auspicious act of defiance against the exploitative encroachment of the usurpers. A comparison has been drawn between the ideology-ridden discursive patterns of both the belligerent narratives and an intriguing concatenation of the diametric contrasts has been identified. The essential argument of the article is entrenched in the postcolonial and the new historicist notions vis-à-vis the chequered nature of the textual narratives and politicized parlance of the discursive records of the historical happenings.</em></p> Saleem Akhtar Khan, Muhammad Ehsan, Nasar Iqbal Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/576 Sat, 06 Mar 2021 06:22:19 +0000 Power and Gender Issues in Sidhwa’s The Pakistani Bride: A Critical Discourse Analysis https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/589 <p><em>This critical discourse study explores power and gender issues discursively constructed in Bapsi Sidhwa’s The Pakistani Bride. The study aims to examine gender issues in the tribal patriarchal social system in Pakistan. The novel understudy critically explored the abuse of power in a patriarchal society. Lazar’s concept of Feminist critical discourse analysis and Fairclough’s approach to critical discourse analysis has been chosen to examine the main issues faced by women in remote areas of Pakistan. Fairclough’s (1989) model has been adopted as a method for the analysis of the selected excerpts taken from the text of the novel. The analysis of the text has been made on the ground to explore women's marginalization, patriarchal hegemony, and power exercise in Pakistan’s remote areas.</em></p> Shah Faisal Ullah, Dr. Ihsan Ullah Khan, Dr. Abdul Karim Khan Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/589 Sat, 06 Mar 2021 06:21:46 +0000 English Speaking Anxiety among in-Service English Teachers in Their Role as Students https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/587 <p><em>Foreign language learning situations are vulnerable to anxiety arousal and ‘speaking’ is reported to be one of the most anxiety-provoking skills. Keeping in line with this, the present study attempts to examine the level of speaking anxiety experienced by in-service English teachers in their role as students of MPhil/Ph.D. The study also aims at demystifying the major anxiety-evoking factors and the effect of some demographic features on FLSA. To this end, a small-scale survey from 30 in-service English teachers from two districts (Lahore &amp; Multan) of Punjab was undertaken. Data were analyzed using SPSS 23. The findings of descriptive statistics revealed that most of the participants faced a medium level of speaking anxiety with their belief to speak better English at this stage which contributed to arouse their speaking apprehension, followed by fear of presenting in front of the class and finally fear of making mistakes. The results of the Independent sample t-test and Pearson rank correlation coefficient indicated that FLSA had a negative correlation with gender and district whereas a positive correlation was found with teaching experience. Based on the findings, the researcher recommends that to alleviate the debilitating effect of speaking anxiety both teachers and students should be made cognizant of the priority of speaking skill which in turn can guarantee better learning outcomes.</em></p> Nazia Kalsoom, Asra Khan, Uzma Sadiq Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/587 Sat, 06 Mar 2021 06:21:16 +0000 Rule of Law and the Doctrine of Proportionality; Appraisal, Rational and Validation https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/585 <p><em>In Germany, many researchers – including judges – believe that the idea of proportionality should stem from the notion of Rechsstaat.&nbsp; The term, when translated into English, is Rule of Law, and “Etat de Droit” in French. Applying the rule of law as a reason for adopting proportionality as a factor for limiting constitutional rights via the constitutionality of sub-constitutional law has also been implemented by other legal organizations. To understand the liaison connecting the rule of law and the doctrine of proportionality, it is essential to determine whether the proportionality could have a harmony with the values of rule of law in five steps. First, it is necessary to enquire whether the rule of law principle has a constitutional position. Next, it must be determined whether the rule of law as a principle of the constitution includes a feature of Human Rights. Third, we must ascertain whether the rule of law, as a principle of the constitution, is based upon an equilibrium amid constitutional rights and their limitations.&nbsp; Fourth, it must be determined that such a balance is conducted through the use of limitation clauses (statutes or the common law). Fifth, it is essential to establish an opinion on whether limitation clauses, which advance the standard of the rule of law, are based on proportionality.</em></p> Hidayat Ur Rehman, Dr. Syed Raza Shah Gilani, Dr. Ilyas Khan Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/585 Sat, 06 Mar 2021 06:20:43 +0000 An Exploration of Classroom-related Sources of Foreign Language Speaking Anxiety of Pakistani University Students https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/584 <p><em>Foreign language anxiety is a distinct variable particular to language learning and it has debilitative effects on the learning and production of language. The current study aims to explore the perspectives of Pakistani postgraduate non-major English language students specifically regarding classroom-related factors that may contribute to their speaking anxiety (SA). A questionnaire was administered to 170 students and aiming to find a more comprehensive explanation of their SA, 20 students were interviewed. Quantitative data were analyzed through SPSS while exploratory content analysis was followed to analyze the qualitative data. Findings highlight several classroom-related sources of SA namely; a formal classroom environment, oral tests, fear of negative evaluation, large classrooms, fear of being put on the spot, short time granted to formulate answers, and unfamiliarity among classmates. The last four sources of SA have not been mentioned earlier in the field of SA. Implications and recommendations are offered for language teachers and material designers. Finally, recommendations for future studies are given.</em></p> Dr. Abdus Samad, Dr. Mansoor Ali, Dr. Abdul Karim Khan Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/584 Sat, 06 Mar 2021 06:20:12 +0000 The Conceptual Analysis of the Doctrine of Proportionality and, its Role in Democratic Constitutionalism; A Case Study of UK https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/583 <p><em>For the last few decades, the doctrine of proportionality has demonstrated and corroborated that it is the most effective legal standard used around Europe for the adjudication of constitutional rights. From its German origins, proportionality has migrated across jurisdictions and areas of law and has become one of the most successful legal transplants. However, there is some confusion as to whether there is any justification for the intervention of this in the UK's legal system, as the UK's legal system is based on common law, and did not welcome this doctrine very much. Therefore, it is essential to analyze the basic principles of this doctrine and check its compatibility with the common law system, which is based on democratic norms. To test the similarity, this article would also reflect on the underlying characteristics of the theory of proportionality and equate it with the standards of a democratic society. To begin with, this article first endeavors to analyze the legal sources of the doctrine of proportionality and then examines its affinity with the democratic norms of the common law system to investigate the compatibility level with each other in protecting the constitutional rights of the people.</em></p> Dr. Syed Raza Shah Gilani, Hidayat Ur Rehman, Dr. Ilyas Khan Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/583 Sat, 06 Mar 2021 06:19:39 +0000 Cognitive Job Demands, Presenteeism and Procrastination: The Moderating Role of Psychological Capital https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/582 <p><em>Using the job-demands resource theory, the basic purpose of this article was to study the relationship between cognitive job demands, stress-related presenteeism, and procrastination. Stress-related Presenteeism is a kind of psychological state in which individuals are present at work but due to stress are not able to expend their full energies at work and remain distracted. We also tested for the combined effect of psychological capital and cognitive job demands on stress-related presenteeism. Data were collected from 192 full-time working professionals and analyzed using step-wise regression and bootstrapping. Results revealed that individuals with strenuous job demands were facing stress-related presenteeism and were involved in procrastination. Findings also supported the moderating role of psychological capital as an effective personal resource in reducing stress-related presenteeism. In the end implications for practice have been discussed.</em></p> Dr. Nosheen Sarwat, Dr. Raza Ali, Dr. Tariq Iqbal Khan Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/582 Sat, 06 Mar 2021 06:19:06 +0000 Institutional Corporate Social Responsibility and Organizational Performance: The Moderating effect of Transformational and Transactional Leadership https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/577 <p><em>This study aims to explore the relationship between transformational leadership (TFL), transactional leadership (TSL) styles, and corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices. The study explains the role of leadership styles between CSR and organizational performance (OP) to investigate the influence of leadership styles over CSR practices this study is the first of its kind in the Asian perspective and Pakistan in particular. Self-administered questionnaires are used to conduct this large-scale field study, data is collected from major cities of Pakistan. Questionnaires are filled by executive managers and administrative staff.&nbsp; Purposive sampling technique is adopted to approach the respondents. Obtained results prove that TFL is more closely interlinked to CSR practices and this relationship becomes robust with the involvement of stakeholder-oriented marketing. Moreover, findings suggest that TSL increases while the TFL decreases the relationship between CSR practices and OP.</em></p> Sidra Munawar, Khalid Hussain Abbasi, Dr. Naveed Iqbal Chaudhry Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/577 Sat, 06 Mar 2021 06:18:33 +0000 Investigating Mathematics Teachers’ Content Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs at Secondary Level https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/546 <p><em>This paper explores the content knowledge of mathematics teachers at the secondary level, their attitudes and beliefs towards mathematics instruction in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Researchers used a survey-type quantitative research design to execute this project. The population for this study was comprised of 692 High and Higher Secondary schools of the public sector of both the genders and 1427 mathematics teachers from seven selected districts. The sample was drawn from the population by taking 143 schools (male &amp; female) and 355 mathematics teachers randomly applying the proportional allocation technique. A questionnaire consisting of 80items on content knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs was developed in light of the objectives of the study. The questionnaire was pilot tested to judge the reliability. The value of Cronbach's alpha was calculated to be 0.81.&nbsp; Experts of items developers were involved to judge the validity of the tool. Data was collected and analyzed using Chi-square (χ2) test. Findings explored that response of mathematics teachers was significant regarding their content knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. But in some concepts of mathematics, they were not competent. Conclusions reveal that in some domains of mathematics, teachers are not competent. It is recommended that continuous refresher courses might be arranged for their capacity building.</em></p> Tanveer Ahmad, Dr. Muhammad Iqbal Majoka, Prof. Dr. Syed Manzoor Hussain Shah Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/546 Sat, 06 Mar 2021 06:17:48 +0000 Comparison of the Knowledge of Technology, Pedagogy and Content of Educators at Secondary Level https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/544 <p><em>The innovative trends in 21<sup>st</sup>-century instruction have altered the entire landscape of pedagogy. Hence, this worldview move requires technological information and expertise from educators along with knowledge of instructional content. The main topic of the research work is based on a new, interdisciplinary framework for educators' knowledge of technological integration, the professed knowledge of modern equipment, art of teaching, and material. This structure is centered on Shulman's concept of knowledge of instructional material i.e. PCK to comprise information about modern equipment. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to; assess and compare the technical instructional and material understanding (TPACK) of IT educators in government and non-government schools. This study has followed a quantitative research approach. The target population comprised of all IT educators working in government and non-government high schools in the urban area of Islamabad. Using a proportionate stratified random sampling technique, 32 IT educators (from government schools) and 40 IT educators (from non-government schools) were selected for sampling. Data were collected using a self-developed research tool. Data analysis was steered using descriptive &amp; inferential statistics. Outcomes of the study specified a noteworthy variance of government with non-government CS educators -about Technological Knowledge (TK), Content Knowledge (CK), Pedagogical Knowledge (PK), Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK), Technical Pedagogic Know-how (TPK) nevertheless, non-noteworthy variance regarding Technological Content Knowledge (TCK) and TPACK.</em></p> Humaira Akram, Prof. Dr. Samina Malik, Prof. Dr. Nabi Bux Jumani Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/544 Sat, 06 Mar 2021 06:17:12 +0000 Linguistic Barriers in Online Teaching at Undergraduate Level in the University of Malakand Pakistan https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/567 <p><em>Language plays a central role in the teaching-learning process. Without language, teaching can never happen; whether it is face-to-face or online teaching. With the outbreak of covid-19, teaching switched over from face-to-face to online one for the first time. Often, in online teaching linguistic barriers occur, since the teacher is not physically present in the classroom to clarify certain situations. This paper attempts to find out various linguistic barriers that occurred in online teaching at the undergraduate level at the University of Malakand. The researchers selected 380 respondents as participants from the total population through a random purposive sampling technique. Besides, a questionnaire was used for data collection. After the data collection, the results were presented in tabulation form showing the frequency and percentage of the respondents. The results were interpreted and analyzed descriptively. The findings of the study indicated that certain linguistic barriers create problems in online teaching for learners. Among those barriers; usage of the English language, difficult terminologies of teachers, complex sentence structure, unknown jargon for learners, absence of body language, and physical absence of teachers, and strong accents of some teachers are the prominent ones. The study suggests that teachers should be properly trained in online teaching with a special focus on the aforementioned areas of difficulties.</em></p> Zaheer Ullah, Shaukat Ali, Saddam Hussain Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/567 Sat, 06 Mar 2021 06:16:40 +0000 The Effect of Literary Text on the Pragmatic Competence and Fluency of ESL Learners https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/566 <p><em>Literature has an inherent authenticity as an input for language teaching. Literary texts carry with them sociolinguistic and pragmatic knowledge which is pivotal for language learners to have their communicative competence increased. This study investigates the effect of the text of poetry on the pragmatic competence and fluency of ESL students. This is an experimental study consisting of a control group (CG) and an experimental group (EG). The respondents of the study are students of the 3<sup>rd</sup> semester, Education Faculty, University of Malakand, Pakistan. Before the commencement of the experiment, a speaking-type pretest was administered to students of both groups. Afterward, the control group was taught through traditional teaching materials whereas the experimental group was treated with poetry as teaching materials. At the end of the six-week-long experiment, a posttest like the pretest was again conducted. Moreover, a semi-structured interview was also conducted after the experiment. The scores of the students of both the groups on pretest and posttest were analyzed through statistical tests. The results of the tests indicated that the students of the experimental group performed significantly better than that of the control group in fluency whereas there was no significant difference in the mean scores of both the groups regarding pragmatic competence. However, the students of the experimental group registered significant improvement in pragmatic competence on posttest in intragroup comparison.&nbsp; The thematic analysis of the interview showed that the learners of the CG were reluctant to express themselves freely. They did not take interest in the group activities and did not actively participate in the presentation activity. On the contrary, the learners were provided with a free-of-fear speaking environment due to the ambiguity and the subjective nature of poetry.&nbsp; Moreover, the text of the poetry was motivating and led to lengthy and intimate interaction among the students of the experimental group thereby improving their fluency. The study recommends that literary texts may be utilized in ESL classrooms.</em></p> Shaukat Ali, Iftikhar Ali, Saddam Hussain Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/566 Sat, 06 Mar 2021 06:15:50 +0000 Online Learning and Motivational Strategies in the Backdrop of COVID-19: An EFL Perspective on Teachers and Students’ Perceptions at Tertiary Level in Pakistan https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/562 <p><em>Keeping in view the significant role of E-Learning during COVID-19 and psychological issues of students and teachers resulting from the abrupt shift of teaching-learning mode to online, it is imperative to have a good understanding of motivational strategies being employed in EFL classes during this period. The present research being descriptive is designed to explore the perceptions of Pakistani teachers and learners about motivational strategies used in EFL classrooms during emergency remote learning. The frameworks of Dornyei and Csize´s model of Motivation in the EFL context (1998) and for E-Learning Computer Assisted Language Learning via Videoconferencing by Davies (2008) have been adopted. Following the pragmatic paradigm, a mixed-method study was designed and data was collected through an online survey from one hundred students and interviews from five university-level teachers.&nbsp; The findings revealed that teachers were more inclined to adopt and favor a student-centered approach to keep the EFL learners motivated, by maintaining a cooperative E-Learning environment, through using CALL’s Web-based approach of Videoconferencing and by extracting students’ responses.&nbsp; Students, on the other hand, were found to be reluctant to take initiative; the reason may be the psychological trauma caused by the quarantine period during the first wave of COVID-19. The implications of the study will instill a new insight for researchers and language learners to consider the scenario of the COVID-19 Pandemic as a blessing in disguise, acting as a foundation stone towards digital advancement, in the Pakistani E-Learning context in general and in the E-EFL context in Particular.</em></p> Dr. Mamona Yasmin Khan, Syeda Aeliya Raza, Dr. Masroor Sibtain Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/562 Sat, 06 Mar 2021 06:15:14 +0000 Improving Teaching of Mathematics through Multiple Intelligences Theory based activities at Secondary School Level https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/558 <p><em>This study was conducted to improve the academic achievement of students in the subject of mathematics at the secondary school level through the application of multiple intelligences theory-based activities at the secondary school level. The researcher used a true experimental design in this study. The population of the study comprised of all secondary school students of district Bannu and 60 students were randomly selected as a sample of study who were further divided(based on pre-test score) into two equivalent groups (Control and Experimental). The experimental group was taught through MIT-based activities, while the control group was taught through the traditional method of teaching. This treatment lasted for eight weeks.&nbsp; At the end of the procedure, a post-test was conducted to find out its outcome. The data obtained was analyzed by SPSS. To compare the achievements of both classes, researchers used the Independent Sample t-test and the Paired Sample t-test. To find out its effect size, Cohens'd was used. Results showed that the experimental group taught through multiple intelligence theory-based exercises has good academic achievements as compared to the results control group taught through the conventional method of teaching. </em></p> Dr. Benazira, Dr. Gulap Shahzada, Dr. Safdar Rahman Ghazi Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/558 Sat, 06 Mar 2021 06:14:42 +0000 Role of Learning Management System in Distance Education: A Case Study of Virtual University of Pakistan https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/552 <p><em>This case study is an overview of prevailing eight-dimensioned frameworks of e-learning for LMS in the Virtual University of Pakistan. This study outlines two dimensions i.e. pedagogy and evaluation out of prevailing eight-dimensions. The main objective of the study was to overview the role of pedagogical and evaluation aspects in distance programs offered through the learning management system. A total of 150 male and female students enrolled in spring and fall semesters in the year 2019 of two-year master level programs of twin cities Rawalpindi and Islamabad were selected through a stratified sampling technique for the study. The researcher developed a questionnaire and verified its validity and reliability for collecting data. Statistical analyses such as mean and standard deviations were used to analyze the questionnaire. The findings of the research are that prevailing LMS is functioning effectively and appropriately as respondents determine in their constructive and optimistic responses regarding the role of learning management system offered by the university in distance learning programs. It is concluded that the functioning of LMS is appropriate and effective. It is recommended that LMS would be useful and effective in any pandemic and prevailing type of situation. The same pattern of LMS is useful during Covid for formal universities.</em></p> Waqas Ahmed, Dr. Qaisara Parveen, Dr. Muhammad Arshad Dahar Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/552 Sat, 06 Mar 2021 06:13:51 +0000 Sociolinguistic Engineering of English Semantics as a tool for Population Indoctrination, Subjugation and Control https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/554 <p><em>The basic principles of modern sociolinguistic engineering as a tool for population indoctrination, subjugation, and control have their beginnings in the strategies designed by Joseph Goebbels of the NAZI regime and also those of the USSR. The redefinition of semantics is a dangerous tool used by propagandists to influence the individuals' sense of reality using language on a psychological level. This creates a populace that is more willing to follow harmful ideologies. The study will investigate existing legislation of Australia, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, and Canada about guarantees on free speech especially in academia, and the classification of hate speech. This study further looks at a microcosm of language used by the diversity, Inclusion, and Equity" movement focusing on an analysis of a glossary created by the University of Washington. It also discusses some terminology that is similarly erroneous but not included in the glossary. The history of terminology and their development is discussed as well as the scientific and linguistic validity of the provided semantic definitions in contrast to the original semantics. The study found that sociolinguistic engineering was taking place in universities and wider society which follows the historic pattern of the Third Reich and USSR. The study recommends that universities and education systems desist from such indoctrination and return to the traditional academic foundations of open inquiry and critical thinking.</em></p> Prof. Alaric Naudé Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/554 Sat, 06 Mar 2021 06:13:18 +0000 Recontextualization of Ideologies: A Critical Study of Tabooed Representation in Pakistani TV Dramas https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/557 <p><em>Taboo is a religiously and socially prohibited practice. In a society, known for its conservative approach and attitude, several subjects have long not been discussed in a public discourse. This study explores how the media revolution of the 21<sup>st</sup> century is changing this situation by compromising and recontextualizing these taboos, as depicted through a text or talk. In recent years, the country's private TV industry has depicted some highly unpleasant topics in its dramas. The critical perspective of Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe (1985) probes deeply into the discourse of TV dramas to uncover the hidden ideologies behind the words in broader social and cultural contexts. To show this change, this study analyzes six Pakistani dramas dealing with hitherto tabooed topics to reveal the pros and cons of the growing ideological trends in Pakistani TV Dramas. First, the study outlines the significance of drama in shaping and recontextualizing ideologies. Second, it outlines certain salient taboo features applicable to almost every play. Finally, it suggests a few improvements in a bid to make things better.</em></p> Dr. Shaista Zeb, Dr. Ubaidullah Khan, Muhammad Ajmal Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/557 Sat, 06 Mar 2021 06:12:41 +0000 Promotional Policies and Its Impact Over the Performance of High School Teachers (HSTs) Of Public Secondary Schools at District Badin https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/561 <p><em>The primary objective of this study was to investigate the promotional policies and their impact on the performance of High School Teachers (HSTs) of public secondary schools of district Badin. To conduct this research both qualitative and quantitative methods were used. Primary data were collected through interviews and a self-administered questionnaire survey. 206 HSTs talked about their, experiences, ideas, they provided valuable comments and feedback to accomplish this study. Moreover, secondary data were collected from official documents such as official promotion policy papers. Simple random and purposive sampling techniques were used. The quantitative data were analyzed through SPSS-version 20, whereas; qualitative data were analyzed through the Miles &amp; Huberman Model of qualitative data analysis. Findings indicate that HSTs lack basic information about promotion policies as a result they do not get promotions on time. Besides, there are frequent changes in the promotion eligibility criteria at the policymakers' end. However, it was noticed that promotions are being done on a merit basis (but are delayed promotions) following necessary (fair) procedures in the district. The causes of delayed promotions are negligence of accountable officials, poor government policies regarding promotions, bribes demand by clerical staff, and also the inattentiveness of teachers in submitting their documents. The bottom line is HSTs are completely not aware of the exact promotion policies, they lack information that when their promotions are due. Therefore, HSTs of district Badin must be properly educated about the promotion criteria, procedure and policies. Training on promotions and policies must be given to them so that every individual teacher could be aware of the promotions and policies.</em></p> Zuhra Ghulam Muhammad, Khalid Hussain Abbasi, Ashfaque Ali Banbhan Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/561 Sat, 06 Mar 2021 06:12:00 +0000 Evil in Human Nature and its Reflections in Society: With Reference to 'Lord of the Flies' by Golding https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/551 <p><em>The study investigates the fact that man is evil by nature and this evil surfaces itself when it finds favorable circumstances. These favorable circumstances make themselves available in the removal of societal rules and parental control. Golding connects the evil nature of man to the Original Sin, when Adam did something sinful by violating the command of God in the Garden of Eden. When the boys feel that they are free from parental control and there is no check of the teachers, they start to violate rules on the Island and even go to the extent of killing each other and there is a reversion to barbarism. In the beginning, the boys behave rationally as they have recently been coming from a civilized society but with the time they regress to savagery and barbarism, they feel themselves above the law free from societal disciplines. The study is significantly significant in the sense that it familiarizes the readers with the psyche of human beings who will, consequently, be conscious of their actions. The methodology used for the article is qualitative. The framework used for the paper is thematic. The paper finds out that human being is evil by nature as a result of which there is mischief and evil deeds in society performed by man.</em></p> Nasim Ullah Khan, Syed Qasim Shah, Muhammad Bilal Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/551 Sat, 06 Mar 2021 06:11:27 +0000