sjesr <p><iframe src="" width="100%" height="3050"> </iframe></p> en-US (Muhammad Idrees) (Web Admin) Sat, 03 Jun 2023 16:23:39 +0000 OJS 60 The study "Unravelling the Impact: Assessing the Impacts of Rising Rates of Interest and Inflation on Individual Finances" <p><em>The impact of rising interest rates and hyperinflation on personal finances is examined in this abstract. It draws attention to how these two economic aspects are interconnected and what it means for people's financial security. This abstract offers insights into how changes in mortgage rates and inflation affect personal finances by looking at the impact on costs of borrowing, deposits, savings, and purchasing power. The link between rate of interest and borrowing costs is the first topic covered in the abstract. When interest rates increase, borrowing money becomes increasingly costly for people, which has an impact on many facets of personal finances like credit card debt, home loans, and auto loans. According to the abstract, increasing borrowing costs can result in bigger debt loads, decreased affordability, and possible difficulties with debt payback. The abstract also looks at how inflation affects people's personal budgets. Over time, inflation reduces the monetary value of money, raising the cost of goods and services. The abstract focuses on how inflationary affects the costs of living, covering necessities like housing, food, and medical care. It emphasizes how crucial it is to factor inflation into long-term financial planning and budgeting in order to preserve financial stability and lessen the loss of wealth. The abstract also discusses how the rate of interest and inflation interact. It illustrates how interest rates are frequently employed by central banks as a tool to manage inflation. By decreasing consumption and slowing economic expansion, an increase in financing costs can help control inflation. However, this additionally has a negative impact on a person's personal finances, especially if they have investments or loans with variable rates or loans that are susceptible to changes in interest rates. The abstract also looks at ways that people might manage the effects of inflation and higher interest rates on their personal budgets. It talks on the value of financial literacy, investment diversification, responsible management of debt, and proactive steps like refinancing or modifying spending patterns to accommodate shifting economic conditions. </em></p> Mohsan Ali, Syed Muhammad Ali Naqi, Muhammad Habib Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Tue, 06 Jun 2023 06:23:37 +0000 Emotional Intelligence: Understanding, Assessing, and Cultivating the Key to Personal and Professional Success <p><em>A complicated idea that has received a lot of attention in workplace behavior and psychology is emotional intelligence (EI). It includes the capacity to recognize, comprehend, control, and make use of one's own and other people's emotions. The components of emotional intelligence, how it is measured, and how it affects societal and individual functioning are all covered in this brief. Emotional perception, or effectively identifying and understanding emotions, is the first aspect of emotional intelligence. Other skills, such as emotional comprehension, which entails understanding the origins and effects of emotions, are built upon this ability. Emotional management is the capacity to manage and regulate one's own feelings, resulting in flexible reactions and better judgment. Utilizing emotions to promote problem-solving, creativity, and relationship-building is another aspect of emotional intelligence. To gauge emotional intelligence, several self-report and ability-based tests have been devised. While ability-based tests evaluate achievement overall tasks needing emotional competency, self-report methods ask participants to rate their own emotional skills. These evaluations offer insightful information on emotional strengths and deficits, enabling focused therapy. According to research, emotional intelligence has a big influence on how people perform. It is related to expanded leadership potential, better leadership skills, and better work output. Relationships are more likely to succeed and be rewarding for those with greater emotional intelligence since these people often have superior social skills, sympathy, and methods for resolving disputes. Additionally essential in social settings, emotional intelligence promotes collaboration, teamwork, and successful dispute resolution.</em></p> Muhammad Habib, Syed Muhammad Ali Naqi, Mohsan Ali Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Tue, 06 Jun 2023 06:02:26 +0000 Comparison to Perceptions of Teachers and Head Teachers about Accountability Measures for Public School Improvement in Punjab <p><em>Every government faces the pressure of quality and accountability as it has become an international agenda. Countries are shaping their policies according to the interest of stakeholders in globalization and international competition. They plan to establish high-performing school systems. Developed and developing countries are also struggling with this movement to ensure the quality and accountability of schools. Different accountability approaches are in practice. Mixed methods research design opted for using an interview protocol and sur\vey with 2220 participants from public elementary schools. A pragmatic approach selected for reliability, and validity was assured while using a triangulation design. Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis were performed for the analysis of data. It concluded that educational accountability is a challenging job. Data revealed an ambiguity in the roles and responsibilities of different stakeholders, teachers, head teachers, parents, students, and district administration. Assign duties may be clarified, and responsible persons may be considered answerable. Some policies are there, but these are in practice in a different sense. Implementation of policies may be authenticated. When students' achievement is considered the main drive of school effectiveness, and schools are rated accountable for results to nurture positive change. More than achievement in numbers alone is required for quality education, as this can easily be achieved through misreporting. For quality and improvement over time, some prime features like creativity and higher-order thinking skills are mandatory. In different situations, there may be other yardsticks to judge students' personality traits like teamwork, commitment, and emotional adjustment.</em> <em>School teachers and head teachers had recommended replacing test-based accountability with performance-based accountability to amplify student learning and success.</em></p> Sofia Jabeen, Samaira Zulifqar Ali, Dr. Ishra Batool Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Thu, 25 May 2023 06:04:05 +0000 Comparing the Performance of Private and Public Sector Mutual Funds: An Analysis of Factors Influencing Returns <p>Increasing interest towards mutual funds has significantly attracted attentions of the researchers, investors in mutual fund scheme. Similarly, investment opportunities and interest towards mutual funds have also increased in Pakistan. Therefore, the aim of the research was to empirically analyse and understand the changes in performance of private and public sector of Pakistan Mutual fund. For conducting this research, researcher has relied on secondary quantitative information, and data has been derived from MUFAP on 1 private company (i.e. Al Meezan Investment Management Limited) and 1 public company (i.e. ABL Cash Fund). For data analysis, statistical tools including correlation, and T-test were used through using SPSS software. Findings show that there is a significance difference in performance of both private and public sector. As NAV and return in private sector is found to be statistically different from public sector. Additionally, risk in mutual fund of private sector is also found to be statistically different from public sector. Further, findings in the current research have also shows a negative association between return and risk of both private and public mutual funds. Findings in the current research can be used to fill a gap in previous studies. Further, findings in the current research can also be used in future studies through increasing sample size, and other factors. Moreover, it can also be used for cross countries, companies, and region.</p> Syed Muhammad Ali Naqi, Mohsan Ali, Muhammad Habib Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Thu, 25 May 2023 04:56:15 +0000 A Comprehensive Examination of the Concept of Women Rights in Islam, along with a Concise Comparative Analysis of Legal Systems in other Nations: Exploring the Clash of Narratives <p><em>This paper intends to offer a thorough and comprehensive examination of the concept of women rights, considering various perspectives and conducting comparative analysis with the legal philosophy of other nations. The research examines conflicting myths about women rights within Islamic societies, seeking to put light on the relevant complexities. By analysing the ideologies, interpretations and cultural impacts, this research seeks to present a cogent review of the concept of women rights. The significance of this study lies in its contribution to a better understanding of the complexities surrounding the concept of women rights in Islamic civilizations, and how they differ from legal frameworks of other nations. By conducting this interdisciplinary analysis, the research offers valuable insights towards the evolving nature of women rights within Islamic background and facilitates a deeper appreciation of the resemblances and differences across various legal frameworks. In conclusion, this study emphasizes the need for a true understanding of women's rights in Islam and the importance of contextualizing them within the broader global discourse. The study contributes to a more informed and inclusive dialogue on women rights and gender equality, fostering an environment conducive to respectful engagement and constructive reform. The study has adopted the doctrinal method of research.</em></p> Amjad Hussain, Rizwana Gul, Aas Muhammad Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Thu, 25 May 2023 04:20:08 +0000 Imran Khan and Z.A. Bhutto: A Comparative Analysis of Pakistani Political Speeches <p><em>Critical Discourse Analysis elucidates the text, language, social customs, hidden agendas, and linguistic twists. Politicians manipulate language in such a way that people's sentiments and emotions connect with politicians. In political debates, CDA has been used to showcase the speech style behind all these and every sort of discourse that can be employed to control the sentiment expressed to the audience (Roffee, 2016). Fairclough's study of the three-dimensional model: text, discursive practices, and societal practices influenced this study. This research examines how political speeches by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto and Imran Khan are constructed and how ideology emerges. Various linguistic tools have been investigated to uncover hidden agendas. The major findings in Imran Khan's power projection are his excessive use of religious and political implications and personal pronouns to gain and show his power. Power is discovered to be constructed via language, ideology, society, and political practices. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto's speech focuses on the right of countries to self-determination. Both UN speeches were watershed moments in Pakistani history, reflecting existing political ideologies and societal factors. The speeches demonstrate how language can build persuasive arguments and communicate important ideas beyond words.</em></p> Sarah Anjum, Muhammad Sabboor Hussain Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Thu, 25 May 2023 03:46:42 +0000 Exploring Stigmatizing Discourses of Mental Illness in Pakistani Newspapers through CDA Lens in Psychology <p><em>Mental health stigma remains a significant challenge in Pakistan, contributing to negative attitudes, behaviours and outcomes for people with mental illness. The present study aims to analyse stigmatizing discourses of mental illness in Pakistani English newspapers using the three-dimensional model of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). A sample of newspaper headlines published between 2015 and 2023 was selected and analysed using the CDA framework. The results revealed that stigmatizing discourses were prevalent in these newspapers including labelling, anthologizing, stereotyping and marginalizing. These discourses reflected broader social and cultural factors such as cultural norms, beliefs and power relations. The findings also highlight the need for more effective policies and interventions aimed at reducing mental health stigma in Pakistan and promoting a more inclusive understanding of mental illness. The study also provides valuable insights into the role of the media in shaping public perceptions towards mental illness in Pakistan and can inform the development of more responsible media practices as well as more comprehensive mental health policies.</em></p> Maham Zehra, Farzana Khan, Shumaila Naureen Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Thu, 25 May 2023 03:33:37 +0000 Level of Academic Stress and its Influence on the Academic Achievements of Students at Mirpur University of Science and Technology <p><em>Academic Stress among university students is a major problem that may negatively affect their grades. Students often experience academic pressure because of the difficulties they face at the university level. This quantitative study aims to evaluate the level of academic stress among the students of Mirpur University of Science and Technology (MUST), Mirpur, Azad Jammu &amp; Kashmir, and its effect on their academic achievements. For this purpose, the causal-comparative research design was used, and the “Academic Stress Scale for University Students” (Noreen et al., 2021) was administered to assess the levels of stress experienced by 331 participants (202 male and 129 female students, stratified by degree level). The CGPA of students was taken as a measure of their academic achievements. SPSS 25 was used to run a t-test and linear regression analysis on the collected data. The findings showed that both male and female students experience similar levels of academic stress with no significant difference between the two groups. Furthermore, the study found that academic stress has little (but not significant) impact on students’ academic achievements, as it only accounts for a small portion of the variation. These results suggest that while academic stress is a concern, it may not be a major factor in students’ academic achievements at MUST.</em></p> Masood ur Rehman, Syed Jawad Zareen Shah, Sher Bano Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Tue, 04 Apr 2023 04:21:50 +0000 An Axiological Discussion: Address Forms as Reflectors of Values in Multilinguals <p><em>The paper attempts to provide an overview of the value system in addressing practice of multilingual speakers. Scholars' interest in this area is not accidental rather deliberations in the field have turned it into interdisciplinary linguistic research. The awareness or knowledge of value (axiology) systems reflect several mechanisms from socio-cultural perspectives, consequently promoting mutual sharing and understanding of community or society. In this paper, we have drawn a philosophical discussion on multilingual cognition by addressing practices in global contexts. The paper aims to explore the worldview of multilinguals in address forms. The study objectives are based on the literature available on the topic. We highlighted the scope, definitions, perspectives, and advancements in axiological theories and approaches. We also turn our attention related to ideas with axiology from theoretical and methodological contributions and advancements in research. The paper concludes the discussion by summarizing facts that culture and linguistic identity observed in the usage of address forms. Thus, the study concludes a short overview of the axiology of multilingual speakers and their reflection on communication behaviour.</em></p> Muhammad Arif Soomro, Mukhtiar Ali Rajper, Mansoor Ali Koondhar Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Fri, 31 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Sustainable Teaching: Analysis of Teachers’ Competencies in Inclusive Education <p><em>The purpose of current research study is to explore the level of awareness and knowledge of primary school level regular and special education teacher, working in an inclusive classroom setting for both typically diversified learners and individuals with special educational needs. The terminology "integrated" was changed to "inclusive," and the term diversity’ replaced ‘disability’. The basic objective of this current research study is to explore the awareness and knowledge of teachers working at primary school level in normal and special education teachers, working in an inclusive education setting for both typically diversified learners and individuals with special educational needs. This study is based on an investigation of teachers’ knowledge and awareness regarding diversity and inclusive education. A purposive design has been included in the general education sectors. a questionnaire for data collection was completed online.&nbsp; Responded (n = 50) by teachers' knowledge about inclusion of diversified individuals, a statistical analysis was combined with the data obtained through a questionnaire. According to research on inclusive education, researchers suggest that, without knowledge and proper training, effective inclusion cannot take place in regular classrooms, regardless of how excellent the infrastructure of the building, educational policy, and how well-resourced it may be. As a result, teachers must know about inclusive education and aware to modify their lessons for diversity, give them tailored education, collaborate with professionals and parents, using modern techniques to supportt learners to resolved the issues, and overcome the weaknesses.</em></p> Sajid Nadeem Khan Khosa, Dr. Muhammad Shakir, Dr. Erum Aslam Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Fri, 31 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Inclusive Education Can Bring Change: The Impact of Factors Influencing Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education in Private and Public Secondary Schools of Karachi <p><em>Teachers must have a positive outlook and be dedicated to the tasks they undertake if they are to succeed in inclusive education. It is vital to ensure that all students have an inclusive future in the classroom. Teachers play an iconic role in implementing inclusive education. The successful execution of inclusive education is primarily attributable to teachers' attitudes toward inclusion policies. This study aims to investigate the impact of Teacher Efficacy for Inclusive Practices (TEIP) on Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education Scale (TAIS). This study employed two different TEIP Scale and TAIS Scale for examining their relationships. This cross-sectional comparative study also seeks to determine the impact of factors influencing teachers' views toward inclusive education. The data analysis was conducted using SPSS 25. The participants included (n=215) secondary school teachers from the private and public schools in Karachi. ANOVA, regression, and one sample t-test were used comparing the factors influencing teachers' views towards inclusion and explore the effect of TEIP on TAIS in public and private secondary schools. The findings show that the secondary school teachers of the private institutions had a significantly more favourable attitude towards inclusive education than secondary school teachers in public institutions. TEIP and TAIS were correlated using the Pearson Correlation test (TEIP). It demonstrates that teachers' attitude toward inclusive education is positively linked with Teachers’ Efficacy to Use Inclusive Instructions (EUII), Efficacy in Cooperation (EC), and Efficacy in Dealing with Disruptive Behaviors (EDDB). This study reveals that there is a significantly positive impact of EUII, EC, and EDDB on TAIS.</em></p> Shameer Khokhar, Manzoor Ahmed, Dr. Shah Mir Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Fri, 31 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Learning Environment on Academic Performance of Students at Secondary Level <p><em>The main objective of this research study was to find out the effect of the learning environment on the academic performance of students at the Higher Secondary Level in the district Dera Ghazi Khan. The population of this study is the students studying in higher secondary schools, private colleges, and Government colleges of the 12th class. The sample size of this research study was1070. A search tool was adopted. The data was collected by the researcher through visiting the Institutions physically. The collected data were tabulated, organized, and was entered in the SPSS. The research study was analyzed through descriptive analysis and inferential statistics. The findings of this study show that there was a significant difference in the perception of male and female students about the effect of the learning environment.&nbsp; Private colleges provide a more learning environment to the students as compared to public institutions. Based on the findings of this study it was recommended that schools should provide basic facilities like library furniture electricity and better seating arrangements.&nbsp; Students should be given opportunities to develop their confidence through debates.</em></p> Erum Khan Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Fri, 31 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment Practices for Teaching and Learning of Mathematics: The Perception of Pre-service Teachers in District Khairpur, Sindh Pakistan <p><em>Mathematics plays a vital role in academics as well as in the everyday lives of individuals. Moreover, it is considered the most complicated and tough academic subject among students due to its complexity. Whereas, in terms of teaching and assessment strategies, mathematical conceptualization is also one of the most challenging aspects among teachers. In the classroom, mostly pedagogical and traditional assessment practices develop students' negative attitudes towards mathematics. Similarly, assessment in mathematics is an integral part of teaching and learning, but it is usually viewed as a problematic part of the instructional task. There is considerable evidence that teachers' beliefs about mathematics assessment impact their teaching of mathematics. This study aims to identify the perceived approaches to assessment in the mathematics classroom and analyze the effective domains of assessment in the mathematics classroom by pre-service teachers in Khairpur. Therefore, to explore this perspective, this study has been conducted with pre-service teachers to analyze their perceptions regarding assessment practices for mathematics. The qualitative research methods employed in this study and the qualitative data collected through a structured interview protocol. The sample of study comprises five pre-service teachers from district Sukkur, Sindh. In an effort to address the research questions, thematic analysis has been used. Furthermore, the findings of this study indicated that the different perceptions of pre-service teachers about assessment in mathematics range from traditional to constructive, which highlights the importance of teaching approaches that focus on formative assessment in the math classroom along with summative assessment in a constructive way. It is recommended that formative assessment be used during the teaching and learning process of mathematics because formative assessment is more effective than summative assessment.</em>Moreover, <em>the study suggests that teachers should adopt some effective strategies for assessment of mathematics.</em></p> Sehar Mangi, Amjad Ali Rind, Shazma Nindwani Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Fri, 31 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Online Math Education during Covid-19 and Associated Learning Anxiety at the Tertiary Level in Pakistan <p><em>A survey method was used to investigate the effect of online math education and students anxiety of learning Mathematics in COVID-19 at university level in Lahore. The basic purpose to design this study was to explore students’ anxiety measures and introduce some coping strategies to minimize the students’ anxiety in online learning math education. All students of graduate and post-graduate level in all public and private universities of Lahore were considered as population of the study. By using convenient sampling technique 500 students were selected from 4 public and 4 private universities. A standardized instrument ‘Mathematics Anxiety Scale’ was adapted after validity and reliability tests. The results showed a strong positive relationship between online Math education and students’ anxiety of learning mathematics. The online math education has statistically significance variance on students’ anxiety of learning mathematics. Therefore, a significant medium effect size was found between public and private universities in online learning </em>mathematics. <em>Therefore Mathematics anxiety effects not only cognitively and physiologically but directly manifests emotionally so to reduce it learners needs to avoid negative talk and focus on positive reinforcement.</em></p> Namirah Aslam, Shagufta Moghal, Shabana Manzoor Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Fri, 31 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Domestic Violence: The Psychological and Legal Factors That Affect Reporting, Prosecution, and Sentencing <p><em>The article highlights the pervasive problem of domestic violence worldwide and the need for a comprehensive understanding of the psychological and legal factors that contribute to it. The psychological factors include individual and cultural beliefs about gender roles, mental health issues, and substance abuse, which can affect reporting and recovery. Legal factors such as insufficient resources, victim blaming, weak sentencing guidelines, and lack of consistency in enforcing protective orders can compound the challenges faced by victims. The article recommends several strategies to address these challenges, including increasing funding and resources for domestic violence programs and services, providing comprehensive training for law enforcement, increasing public awareness, developing consistent sentencing guidelines, improving enforcement of protective orders, and providing trauma-informed care for victims. The article emphasizes the need for a collaborative effort from stakeholders across the criminal justice system and the broader community to create an effective and compassionate response that prioritizes victim safety, holds offenders accountable, and promotes healing and recovery.</em></p> Abdus Samad Khan, Sobia Bashir, Faisal Shehzad Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Thu, 30 Mar 2023 14:53:33 +0000 Analysing the Perceptions of Teachers’ and Parents’ on the Causes and Consequences of Slow Learners’ Early Learning Difficulties in Karachi Pakistan <p><em>The development of a nation cannot occur without first addressing the issues of education. Students can learn at varying speeds, from very quickly to quite slowly. Children who fall below the norm for their age group in terms of cognitive development are categorized as slow learners. They have trouble meeting the academic standards of a traditional classroom setting. Educators and researchers from all around the world are beginning to clarify the components of slow learning and conduct extensive studies on slow learners at all levels of schooling. This research looks at pre-schoolers who are slow learners in specific areas of Karachi, as well as the activities and beliefs of both parents and educators that contribute to the problem. </em><em>The purpose of this research was to determine how teachers and parents perceived the problems and difficulties faced by slow learners and to identify potential solutions to improve their learning. To achieve the objective researchers employed qualitative research design and used a questionnaire to gather information from preschool educators and parents. Findings of the study highlight the importance of characteristics including memory impairment, lack of self-assurance, a lack of social support, and a hesitant disposition in causing learning difficulties. The importance of fostering in children a passion for learning is widely acknowledged by parents. A teacher's ability to provide a learning environment that caters to each student's unique needs and strengths is crucial to the academic success and happiness of slow learners. Unfortunately, there are times when this isn't feasible for a number of reasons. Further support for slow learners is found in individualized lesson plans, extended study periods, learning through projects, and the use of interactive media (such as games), oral instruction, and collaborative projects.</em></p> Sumaira Younis, Saman Naeem, Dr. Zahid Ali Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Fri, 24 Mar 2023 16:24:23 +0000 Using English Language as a Source of Good First Impression and a Parameter to Judge Status <p><em>This is a survey research investigating using of English language as a source of good first impression and how English is used as a parameter to judge status. Simple Random Sampling technique is used to select the participants and the sample was based on randomly selected 100 students of Department of English, University of Kotli Azad Kashmir. The sample consists 45% of the total population. A well-designed questionnaire, stating a scenario, and on the basis of that scenario the participants were asked 10 close ended questions. The personality traits were Well Educated, Civilized, Modern Personality, Great knowledge, High class, Wealthy family, Fashionable attire, Resourceful, Superior and Honest. As a framework the researcher used a mixture of Big Five Personality Sub-Traits merged with other impression factors according to the needs of the current study. After analysing it is found that use of English language at first meeting have a great effect on impression formation. It is found that people admire individuals who frequently use English in their conversations. That’s how it is also used as parameter to judge status.</em></p> Syeda Maryam Fatima, Anees Nawazish Raja, Kiran Razzaq Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Fri, 24 Mar 2023 16:13:15 +0000 The Influence of Vocabulary Instructions to the Development of grade 9 ESL Learners' English Vocabulary Acquisition: A Phenomenological Study <p><em>The goal of this study was to investigate methods for teaching English vocabulary to ninth-grade students in private schools in order to identify learning obstacles in the acquisition of vocabulary instruction and to propose suitable solutions. Hence, a phenomenological qualitative research approach was used to accomplish the goals of the study. This phenomenological analysis of classroom instruction provides important insights into the design of vocabulary-building exercises for English as a Second Language (ESL) learners and discusses several important considerations that must be taken into account. Children learning English as a second language who have a slower than average rate of vocabulary acquisition also have a more difficult time comprehending literature written at the ninth grade level. In-depth interviews with four ESL educators were recorded, transcribed, and evaluated thematically. The findings suggest that ESL educators are employing a wide range of methods to boost students' vocabulary in their lessons, but more research into the effectiveness of these methods is needed. This study confirmed the need of providing ongoing assistance to ESL learners as they work to increase their vocabulary. More research in these areas is needed to improve ELTs' vocabulary instruction, ESLs' vocabulary acquisition and understanding, as this study found that vocabulary training and other linguistically based interventions improved reading and education results for ESL students. Teachers also need to be familiar with and equipped to use contemporary methods of vocabulary instruction that take into account their students' abilities and background knowledge.</em></p> Dr. Zahid Ali, Ishtiaq Ahmed Kolachi, Rizwan Azam Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Tue, 14 Mar 2023 16:37:51 +0000 Effect of Corrective Feedback on the Development of Vocabulary in the Acquisition of Second Language at Secondary Level <p><em>Effect of corrective feedback on the development of vocabulary in the acquisition of second language at secondary level was the main purpose of this study. The study utilized an experimental design, specifically a (pre-test post-test equivalent group design). Sample consisted of 30 students in each group, selected on their pre-test scores. Experimental group received corrective feedback during an eight-week period, while the control group followed the same lessons but with the conventional teaching. Results also indicated that application of corrective feedback strategy was beneficial for the vocabulary development of experimental group contrarily to control group. These findings implied that integrating ‘‘corrective feedback’’ a type of feedback in language teaching practices can effectively enhance students' language proficiency in public sector schools in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Therefore, the study recommends that language teachers in public sector schools in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa should adopt corrective feedback strategies into their teaching practices to improve their students' overall language proficiency, including vocabulary development.</em></p> Sardar Muhammad, Zahoor-ul-Haq, Sanam Alam Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Tue, 14 Mar 2023 16:25:36 +0000 Fayol’s Purpose Principles of Management: An Analysis of Practices of Heads at Secondary Level in District Poonch Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan <p><em>The study aimed to examine the managerial practices of school principals in district Poonch Azad Jammu &amp; Kashmir's private secondary schools, using Henri Fayol's management theory's purpose principles as a framework. The primary goals of the study were to assess how the heads' experience impacted their adherence to Fayol's purpose principles and to compare the implementation of these principles based on gender. The research was founded on Henri Fayol's administrative theory. All the private schools were population of the study which was 94 during the academic year 2012-17. Systematic sampling technique adopted to select the sample. There 76 private schools selected as sample of the study. The data collected through questionnaires. This Instrument had been validated from the experts. Collected data had been entered in Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). This software supported the scholar for the generation of reports. For data analysis mean, ANNOVA and t-test used to find the relevant results of objectives. Results reported and derived on the basis of data analysis. Some key findings were that principles of Fayol management theory are practiced by heads. However some parts of this theory are being neglected. The implementation of these principles varies based on the previous experience of the team leads. In certain cases, highly experienced individuals may overlook principles that are crucial for those with less experience. The implementation of management principles also varies among leaders based on gender. Based on these variations in results, it is recommended that different performance reviews be provided to the school heads to assess their strengths and weaknesses. In addition, school heads may benefit from proper training sessions and mentoring. It is also suggested that workshops be conducted to raise awareness about management theories</em></p> Anum Hayat, Dr. Saira Nudrut, Syed Jawad Zareen Shah Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Sat, 11 Mar 2023 07:36:14 +0000 Collaboration as 21st Century Learning Skill at Undergraduate Level <p><em>This research work is about collaboration as an important learning skill of the 21<sup>st</sup> century skill set. Collaboration means to work to gather or to work as team to attain some certain common objectives. This research study highlights different advantages to work as a collaborative team. It covers both quantitative and qualitative aspects of the topic. Detailed interviews are conducted from students and as well a survey was also conducted to check to what extent students are using this skill of collaboration in their learning process. Six students from BS English and BS Education were selected for interview section and 200 students from BS English and BS Education were surveyed in this study. Both quantitative and qualitative results are analysed and conclusion is drawn on the basis of results. Convergent parallel mix method design is used to analyse the data. Data analysed with simple descriptive statics and thematic analysis of the conducted interviews. The results of this study shows that collaborative tasks are used among students in their process of learning but not at a larger scale. Group work and combine projects and assignments are included but just for once or twice in a semester.</em></p> Musarrat Riaz, Dr. Marium Din Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Sat, 11 Mar 2023 07:21:56 +0000 Effect of bullying behaviour on Pakistani Adolescents: Roll of self-esteem and Academic Achievements in gender Perspectives <p><em>Existing study objectives was to investigating the impact of bullying behaviour on adolescent’s self-esteem and academic achievements in gender perspectives. The population of existing research was all young people of Punjab Pakistan. The sample contained of 3200 students aged between 13 to 19 who were enrolled public schools in Punjab province, stratified sampling procedure was used. For the present research cross-sectional research and quantitative research technique was designed. To assess the face to face bullying<a name="_Toc78205019"></a><a name="_Toc52297656"></a> Problem Behaviour Frequency Scale was adapted. For assessing self-esteem of adolescents Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale adopted and accessing academic achievements grades were included. The findings were analysed after data cleaning, used Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 26. Regression analysis was carried out to see the sights of impact of bullying behaviour. T-Test was used to measure differences of gender differences. Pearson Moment Co relational Analysis was used to measure the effect of bullying behaviour on self-esteem and educational achievement of adolescents. The results demonstrated that majority of the respondents agreed upon that there is an impact of traditional bullying on adolescents. The results exhibited that traditiona1 bullying had a moderate corre1ation with academic achievement and self-esteem. Findings revealed that a significant difference between female and male and adolescents with regard to traditiona1 bullying. Female students indicate that their opinion is stronger with traditiona1 bullying as compared to male students. Programs for bullies must be put in place by teachers and administration in order to decrease bullying behaviour at institutions.</em></p> Dr. Fouzia Parveen, Hina Tehreem, Qurat-ul-Ain Shams Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Sat, 04 Mar 2023 07:55:21 +0000 How Teachers Develop Professionally: Effectiveness of Trainings Programs on Teaching Attitude and Performance of Science Teachers <p><em>Teachers training found to be very effective in the teaching profession and proves useful to bringing changes in the major aspects of teaching like attitude and performance regarding their professional development. Therefore, this study was conducted to find out the perception regarding teaching attitude and performance of trained and untrained science teachers. The study aim to explore the teaching attitude regarding effectiveness of training and their professional development. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data from 15 trained and 15 untrained teachers those joined lately. The study found that the trained teachers show positive attitude because of their training, building up expertise in the field. Though, the untrained teachers like teaching because they viewed it respectable profession but need to improve further. Also it was found that training makes teachers performance better than the untrained teachers cannot perform well initially. Moreover, male and female teachers have different attitude towards teaching profession. Also the private teachers perform well in different aspects then public school teachers. Overall the study concludes that both trained and untrained teachers have positive attitude towards teaching with a difference in performance. There is a difference between trained and untrained teachers on their classroom management and pedagogical approach. This study suggests that there should be opportunity of continuous professional development provided to the new teachers as well as senior teachers.</em></p> Dr. Nasrin Akhter Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Wed, 15 Feb 2023 05:09:35 +0000 A Qualitative Inquiry into the Role and Issues of Physical Education in Primary Schools: Perspectives of Primary School Teachers <p><a name="_Toc85130486"></a><em>The study explored the role and issues of physical education (PE) in primary schools.</em><em> A qualitative research design was used to investigate the issues. The participants of the study were purposively selected from primary schools teachers (PSTs) in lower Dir Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Semi-structured interviews were conducted for collecting data. In this regard, four questions were developed after studying the literature and discussing the issue with the stakeholders. The data collected were analysed through the thematic analysis technique. Analysis of the data shows that physical education is essential for the mental, physical, and social growth of children. Moreover, it keeps students active and they feel happy in school. And physical activities can make students good citizens and useful human beings in the future. However, the study finds that physical education is not taken seriously in primary schools. There are not any dedicated teachers, a proper curriculum is missing and most of the schools lack proper grounds and indoor facilities where the students may exploit their potential.</em></p> Nazia Saeed, Dr. Rahmat Shah, Dr. Itbar Khan Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Mon, 13 Feb 2023 05:50:30 +0000 Input Resources and Academic Achievements of the Students <p><em>The study was primarily intended to examine the association of input resources and academic achievements of the students in public and private sector colleges. Input resources were measured in terms of physical, financial, human, and information resources. The academic achievements of the students were measured through results of respective colleges in annual BISE examinations and treated as output of the colleges. For sampling, the colleges of district Kotli AJ&amp;K were selected. The study employed primary data, collected through mailed questionnaire, to determine the level of input resources in respective colleges. In the meantime, secondary data regarding academic achievements of the students were extracted from annual board gazettes. The collected responses were analysed by using correlation and regression analysis. The study found difference between input resources and academic achievements of the students in public and private colleges. Positive and significant correlation between input resources and academic achievements of the students was also observed. Separate regression analysis for public and private sector colleges exposed that the effect of input resources on academic achievements of the students remained pronounced in private as compared to public colleges. Based on results, the study suggested the effective deployment and sharing of available resources to and from each category for mutual gain and better educational outcomes.</em></p> Dr. Khatiba Akhter, Dr. Ghulam Mujtaba Chaudhary, Prof. Dr. Muhammad Aslam Asghar Copyright (c) 2023 sjesr Mon, 13 Feb 2023 00:00:00 +0000