sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs <p><iframe src="https://sjesr.org.pk" width="100%" height="3050"> </iframe></p> Sir Syed Journal of Education & Social Research en-US sjesr 2706-8285 Impact of Professional Development of Teachers on Students’ Achievement https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/563 <p><em>Professional Development is an integral part of a teacher's professional career and it is a topic most discussed in the teaching profession since the last decade. Lastly, it was called in-service training but now it is known as "Professional Development". The main aim of the present study was to analyze the impact of teachers' professional development on the students' achievement in Elementary teachers' training institutes of Punjab, Pakistan. Government Colleges for Elementary Teachers (GCET) of Punjab was the target population. From 30 colleges of Punjab, data was collected using a self-developed tool from the sample of 70 teachers, and 100 students of the same colleges were used in the study. This study was cross-sectional. The data regarding the professional development of teachers was primary data collected from both teachers and students. The data about achievement scores of students was secondary. The statistical methodology correlation and regression analysis were used to analyze the impact. Further to test the significance of correlation and regression results the t-test and ANOVA were applied respectively. Data were analyzed with the help of Statistical software SPSS. Study findings showed that the correlation between 'Professional Development' and 'Students achievement' is high i.e. 0.314 for students and 0.343 for teachers along with significance values 0.004 and 0.001 respectively. The regression results are also significant having an F-statistic of 10.699 for students and 9.070 for teachers along with significant values 0.001 and 0.004 respectively.&nbsp; Analysis of the results showed that 'Professional Development of teachers have a great positive impact on 'Students achievement'.</em></p> Shahida Tanveer Prof. Dr. Zafar Iqbal (Rtd.) Muhammad Arsalan Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2021-12-27 2021-12-27 4 4 42 49 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss4-2021(42-49) Management versus Governance Power Contests Facing Principals in Schools: Power Relations https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/823 <p><em>The focus of the article is about issues that secondary schools face in terms of the responsibilities of principals and school governing bodies (SGBs) in terms of dispersed leadership rather than one-man role-based leadership. Methods: The study investigates issues of schools surrounding distributed leadership practices using data from research on the connection between the principal and school governing bodies. This research used qualitative and quantitative data collected from secondary school administrators, SGB members, and teachers as part of a design research project. Implications: According to the findings, concentrating on distributed leadership methods may assist overcome some of the drawbacks of providing feedback to a single leader. Findings: In Gauteng secondary schools, opposing ideas and expectations predominate. Where SGBs and principals struggle against one another, ambiguous rules are found. Some principals impose terms on SGBs, while SGBs impose terms on principals. Dysfunctional schools are caused by weak governance and management. In terms of financial problems, there is a lack of transparency in schools. Principals contribute to school problems by refusing or failing to accept their ineptness. They continue to run schools inefficiently; they do not fully engage teachers in school management; they mistreat parents; they impose terms on SGBs; they contribute to dysfunctional schools; school resources are embezzled for purposes not related to the running of schools, and they mix up their work with that of the SGBs. Principals and SGBs should be made aware that cooperation, rather than competition, may be more effective in reducing power struggles in schools.</em></p> Prof. Vimbi Petrus Mahlangu Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2021-12-27 2021-12-27 4 4 28 41 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss4-2021(28-41) Impact of Consumer Service Performance Mechanism on Consumer Buying Behaviour: A Case of Automobile Industry in Pakistan https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/555 <p><em>The automotive business today is the most profitable. The critical factors in the high-volume vehicle segments are the rise in disposable income in rural and urban markets and the availability of fast financing. The following research discusses the factors affecting consumer-purchasing behavior in the Karachi Pakistan automotive industry. Close-ended questionnaires having 5 points Likert scale were used to gather data from the targeted population using convenient sampling. A multiple backward regression test was run using SPSS to test the hypothesized statements. The findings of the study suggest that the Delivery, Installation, and Warranty have a strong effect on customers' buying behavior. The study also gives guidelines and opens the door for further studies. The study recommends that similar variables that affect customer loyalty for post-sales services in other related sectors should be recognized in the potential study, such as automobile, construction, and other industries and services.</em></p> Muhammad Yawar Alam Ansari Dr. Muhammad Asim Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2021-12-27 2021-12-27 4 4 18 27 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss4-2021(18-27) Science Learning Through Interactive Teaching Method: An Experimental Study https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/532 <p><em>An experimental study was conducted to find the impact of interactive teaching methods on science learning. 70 students from seventh grade were selected to participate in this study. A control group with 35 randomly assigned students was taught by the traditional lecture method and an experimental group with another 35 students was taught by an interactive teaching method. A pre-test was conducted before implementing the intervention to measure the baseline score while a post-test was administered to measure the impact of the intervention. An ANCOVA (Analysis of Covariance) was used to find the significant difference in science achievement scores of students between the traditional teaching method and interactive teaching method after controlling the effect of pre-test scores. There was a significant difference in students' science achievement scores between students in the traditional teaching group and students in the interactive teaching group, F (2, 67) = 153.47, p &lt;.001 h2 = .82. It was concluded that the interactive teaching method significantly improves student science learning.</em></p> Sajid Ali Yousuf Zai Fouzia Ajmal Saira Nudrat Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2021-12-27 2021-12-27 4 4 10 17 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss4-2021(10-17) Learner Discipline versus Learner Freedom in Secondary Schools https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/818 <p><em>The researchers propose that student discipline in schools should be aimed at correcting student behavior rather than punishing them. The freedom of students must not lead to lawlessness in the classroom. Teachers must recognize that teaching and learning, as well as creativity, take place in a structured context. Teachers may contribute to disciplinary issues at school by demonstrating poor classroom management skills, a hostile attitude toward students, a lack of respect for instructional time, and improper behavior both within and outside the school. On the other side, due to their lack of respect for school authority, students may contribute to disciplinary issues.</em> <em>The sample for this study was chosen from three senior secondary schools in Namibia's Zambezi area, with a total of 60 teachers. The sample included four teacher participants from each school.</em></p> Dr. Aggrey Kayabu Makendano Prof. Vimbi Petrus Mahlangu Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ 2021-12-27 2021-12-27 4 4 1 9 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss4-2021(1-9) The Significance of STEM in Effective Teaching-Learning Process at Secondary Schools https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/748 <p><em>In this modern era, the importance of STEM in both instructors' and students' teaching and learning process has a lot of potentials. Like other developing nations throughout the world, Pakistan is in the early phases of incorporating STEM Education into the teaching and learning process at educational institutions. The study's primary focus is on STEM and the elements that influence the teaching-learning process. This was a descriptive research project. The study's sample included secondary school instructors. A questionnaire was used to collect data from 200 secondary school teachers. Data were subsequently analyzed using frequency and basic percentage statistical methods. The study's findings show that secondary teachers have a strong desire to understand the importance of STEM and how it may be integrated into the classroom. According to the results, education stakeholders should provide secondary teachers with the tools they need to maximize the benefits of STEM integrated learning and support secondary school teachers through training delivery. The study may suggest that the ministry of education allocate funding to the education department to promote and develop STEM integrated teaching and learning at the secondary level.</em></p> Mr. Muhammad Ramzan Dr. Najam Ul Kashif Mr. Asghar Ali Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-11-26 2021-11-26 4 4 37 42 Taking off the Veil: A Discursive Feminist Perusal of American Brat https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/762 <p><em>The current study investigates the cultural clash in building a personality in the novel “American Brat”. It illuminates the life of a Parsee young lady who turns into a casualty of two societies and faces unconventional strictness and perceived social and political blems that arose during the entire interaction of her</em><em> metamorphosis</em><em>. The epic spins around </em><em>the</em><em> focal figure </em><em>named </em><em>Feroza who was acquainted both in Pakistan and America: the previous is a man-centric culture while the last is a free state consequently outlining her personality in two societies. The novel builds alternate points of view of females' personality, for example, being an individual from a traditionalist and modern culture. “<strong>Feminist critical discourse analysis</strong>” (Lazar, 2007) was applied to address the study objective. The passages chosen illustrate how women are viewed in two different cultures. The analysis uncovers badgering, sexual or abusive behaviour at home, and violence against women in certain settings however then again in certain societies, she is sanctioned. The chosen text is investigated by FCDA scepter.&nbsp;The results mirror that the novel portrays a doubled feminism paradigm depicting that in a man-centric culture like Pakistan, the woman is under badgering, sexual or aggressive behaviour at home, and attacks while in the developed nations like America she is strengthening and autonomous to act as per her will.</em></p> Tazanfal Tehseem Aqsa Arshad Zohaib Hassan Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-11-26 2021-11-26 4 4 28 36 Dual Aspects of Demand of Province of South Punjab: Redefining Federalism https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/324 <p><em>Federalism in Pakistan is throughout in trouble due to delay in constitution-making, inter wing parity, and majority constraint approach. Now provincial autonomy granted through the 18<sup>th</sup> amendment is redefining federation as it has made ethnic minorities conscious about their ethnic identity and this consciousness-raising has matured in terms of voice raising for new provinces. The demand for a new province in South Punjab is viable both in ethical and economical aspects, whether it is the creation of a new province on ethnic ground or recreation of Bahawalpur province based on economic revival. It is envisaged that the dual-mode of new province in south Punjab may redefine federalism as it will be a paradigm shift from ethnic identity to economic interest and may redefine the boundaries of constituent units accordingly. So new province in South Punjab in every case may erupt the dormant volcano of the creation of new provinces across Pakistan.</em></p> Syed Faisal Iqbal Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-11-25 2021-11-25 4 4 18 27 Effect of Textbook Activities on Students’ Health Consciousness at Primary Level https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/464 <p><em>This research had aimed to find an effect of activities in textbooks on primary level students’ health consciousness. The review of related literature discovered that health consciousness can be upgraded with the help of textbook activities. The design used had been quasi-experimental without randomization. Pre-test post-test non-randomized control group design had been used. Two groups were selected with convenient sampling for collecting data. There were sixty-two (62) participants in the experimental and control groups. The instrument used for data collection was a health consciousness test. &nbsp;Data had been analyzed with a t-test. Some recommendations were made for the teachers teaching Science subjects at primary school to improve their teaching methodology in a way that they may involve textbook activities to focus on students' health consciousness. Further researches may be conducted to find the effect of Text Book activities on some areas of the cognitive and the psychomotor domain.</em></p> Attiya Khalique Dr. Muhammad Samiullah Dr. Fazal-ur-Rahman Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-11-25 2021-11-25 4 4 10 17 Exploring the Significance of Speaking Skill for EFL Learners https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/509 <p><em>In the era of globalization, people need communication and for this purpose, communication skills perform a key role. To be successful in different fields of life, all people need to get proficiency overall skills of the language. Among these skills, speaking occupies the core position. Without this skill, the purpose of communication cannot be performed effectively. English has become the universal language and all people of the world can communicate with other people through English.&nbsp; People need interactions in a present global world and for interaction with all people across the world, one common language is needed, and English fulfills this need. People can understand and can be understood by this medium of communication. Akhter, Qureshi, Hassan, and Barira (2020) illustrate that English has become an international language. Owing to its significance in this globalized era, it becomes imperative for the learners to get command over the skills which fulfill the task of communication. For EFL learners, the need to acquire competency over these skills increases many times. To survive in the 21<sup>st</sup> century successfully, the knowledge of English and command overall skills are essential. So, to keep pace with the trends of the modern world, EFL learners should gain knowledge of the English Language. To improve their communication especially speaking skills better, the ideal place is the classroom. The issues of EFL Learners should be interpreted by the instructors. They should introduce such strategies in the classroom which improve their all skills in general and speaking skills in particular. The undertaken research is an attempt to highlight the significance of speaking skills for EFL Learners. Moreover, the present study also explains the various effective methods and techniques to enhance EFL Learners’ speaking skills.</em></p> Shamim Akhter Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-11-25 2021-11-25 4 4 1 9 Legal and Social Status of Eunuchs Islam and Pakistan https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/811 <p>Media interest on eunuch and their problems has blossomed over the past decade. Stories about eunuchs have been the focus of dozens of books, movies, television dramas, and documentaries. Similarly, eunuchs now has moved from being a relatively obscure topic, Examined in a handful of medical journals, to becoming the central topic of numerous books and articles in a variety of disciplines, including psychology, history, anthropology, and medical ethics. Eunuchs now a day has also become a hot topic in legal circles. In the past ten years, more than a hundred legal articles and books have included a discussion on eunuchs and their problems. Most of these publications do not focus on the issues that have a direct effect on the lives of eunuchs.</p> <p>Understanding how the issues that are critical to people with such condition can be conflated with the issues affecting other people who challenge sex and gender norms requires a basic understanding of the nature of intersexuality. The meaning of the term eunuch has varied and the issue is still a topic of sometimes heated discussion. Although doctors and activists debate exactly what conditions qualify as to be called eunuch I am using the term in its broadest sense to include anyone with a congenital condition whose sex chromosomes, gonads, or internal or external sexual anatomy do not fit clearly into the binary male/female norm.</p> <p>Activists working to enhance the rights of eunuch’s advocate of eliminating harmful practices based on sex and gender stereotypes. In addition, both groups seek to enhance the right to sexual self-determination. The primary focus of each group differs, however. The primary goal of the eunuch’s movement is to eliminate or decrease the number of medically unnecessary genital surgeries being performed on children with an intersex condition. Intersex advocates believe that these medical interventions often result in physical and emotional trauma. Thus, they believe that these surgeries should not be performed on children and should only be undertaken with the informed consent of patient’s parents when they reach an age at which they can fully understand the risks and can decide for themselves whether they want to undergo genital surgery. The eunuch’s activist movement is still in its infancy and is in the process of developing its advocacy strategies.</p> <p>Although scholars in a variety of disciplines, including medical ethics, history, psychology, sociology, and anthropology, have published books on eunuchs, none has examined the role that the law can play in enhancing the lives of people with an intersex condition. The legal frameworks used by social justice movements that have effectively brought challenges to discriminatory practices and explores whether the eunuchs movement can form mutually beneficial alliances with these other movements and use similar legal strategies.</p> Rizwana Gul Nadia Zafar Shaista Naznin Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-09-21 2021-09-21 4 4 515 523 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss2-2021(515-523) The Role of Muslim Family Law Ordinance 1961 in Protecting the Rights of Women, Case Studies from Mardan District https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/798 <p><em>Spouses have several obligations over one another. In a marriage, the husband has rights over his wife and the wife has rights over her husband. Among these rights, the right of maintenance of wives is one of the most important. Numerous laws are there to protect the right of maintenance for wives. The Muslim family law ordinance of 1961 is one such law that ensures that women are treated fairly. Moreover, Islam also provides an explanation for the rights of partners in an Islamic marriage. If the terms of marriage declared at the time of Nikah are not satisfied, then the wife has the authority to seek help. Islam even gives women the right to get a divorce, if she is not treated or if her needs and rights are not satisfied. It is the foremost duty of husbands to look after their wives. They are accountable for giving them mental and physical support as well as financial support. Therefore, it is evident how much importance women have in Islam and how important maintenance is for Muslim women.</em></p> Sidra Rizwana Gul Abdus Samad Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-09-17 2021-09-17 4 4 508 514 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss2-2021(508-514) Socio-Economic Causes and Rights of Differently Abled Persons in Pakistan: An Analysis https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/777 <p><em>Special persons are a disregarded social and economic underclass often observed by the public as annoying, dependent persons in need of aid and misfortune, which influences on them by preserving their downgraded status. The article relates to the special persons, i.e. disabled blind, physically handicapped, and even hard of hearing persons who deserve special attitude and care not only from social services center but also from the government agencies which are particularly meant to provide all possible help and courage&nbsp; to such most deserving people of the society. Toward the start of the 21st century, not every single influenced nation give the vital direction to young people, appropriate mindfulness, care and adolescence. This research is comparative analysis of the legal frame work on the rights of the persons with disabilities in Pakistan.&nbsp; The rights of special persons in Pakistan continued to be violated. Individuals with incapacities likewise confront numerous social, monetary, physical and political handicaps, blocking their opportunity of development in the public arena. These boundaries incorporate shame and misconstruing of the capacities and yearnings of individuals with incapacities. They are the most distraught. Individuals with incapacities confront overpowering boundaries in training, abilities improvement and regular day to day existence there is additionally an absence of clearness of information, standards and controls, recovery focuses, and coordinated administrations and aptitude for individuals with inabilities. The search delves into the position of leadership in a bid to bring out the fact that those in power continue to violate the rights of special persons</em></p> Dr. Fozia Naseem Dr. Lt. Col. (R) Rooh ul Amin Syed Muhammad Najam Ameer Shah Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-09-17 2021-09-17 4 4 500 507 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss2-2021(500-507) The Role of Elementary Teachers’ Emotional Intelligence Competencies in improving Students’ Motivation and Student-Teacher Relationship https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/796 <p><em>Emotional intelligence is an accumulation of many emotional intelligence competencies and these competencies are generally found in people with different variations. Emotionally strong teachers impact teaching learning process in schools positively. The present study was conducted to find out the effects of emotional intelligence (EI) competencies of teachers on student-teacher relationship and student’s motivation at elementary level. Twenty five competencies of teachers were explored under five major domains i.e. emotional self-awareness, motivation, self-regulation, social-skills and social-awareness. Goleman’s Emotional Competence Inventory (Boyatzis &amp; Goleman, 2002) was used as a tool for data collection. Two questionnaires were developed by the researchers after review of related literature for measuring the student’s motivation and student-teacher relationship. For assuring the reliability of instrument, Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient was calculated, which ranged from 0.73 to 0.86. One hundred and sixty elementary school teachers (EST) and senior elementary school educators (SESE) were selected as the sample of the study from two tehsils of Sargodha district. The data of one hundred and fifty one respondents were analyzed through t-test, one way ANOVA and regression analysis. The findings discovered that teacher’s EI competencies had significant effect on students’ motivation and student-teacher relationship in elementary schools. There was no gender difference in emotional competencies of teachers. It was concluded that age had significant effect on teacher’s EI competencies as younger ones scored higher on ECI. It was recommended that training programs may be organized to enhance teachers’ emotional intelligence competencies.</em></p> Dr. Riffat-un-Nisa Awan Dr. Muhammad Nadeem Anwar Samreen Farooq Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-08-04 2021-08-04 4 4 492 499 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss2-2021(492-499) The Relationship of Entrepreneurship Education and Entrepreneurial Intentions of University Students: The Mediating Effect of Attitudinal Factors https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/793 <p><em>The study intended to examine the effect of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intentions of students studying business education in different universities. More over the mediating effect of attitudinal factors on the relationship of intended variables was also explored. Six hundred graduate students were surveyed through a questionnaire from three public universities. The findings displayed that entrepreneurship education was significantly affecting entrepreneurial intentions of the students. Attitudinal factors have a strong mediation for entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intentions of higher education students. It can be concluded that entrepreneurial curricula and instruction along with attitudinal factors can add significantly to advance entrepreneurial intentions of students. It is suggested that the students of higher education, may be exposed towards entrepreneurship knowledge through regular instructional process, seminars and workshops to enhance their entrepreneurial capacities.</em></p> Muhammad Sadiq Dr. Riffat-un-Nisa Awan Ghazanfar Ali Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-08-04 2021-08-04 4 4 483 491 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss2-2021(483-491) Early Childhood Teacher Competencies: Perspectives of Educational Leaders of Public and Private Sector in Karachi https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/791 <p>In Pakistan, various teacher development and professional competency model exist and have been presented. However, there is a lack of a competency model for teachers of early childhood care and education (ECCE). This research study was an attempt in initiating a formal discourse regarding how school leaders perceive ECCE teacher competency (TC). The study approached an exploratory qualitative study with the intent to understand the perspective of educational leaders from the public and private sector pertinent to ECCE-TC. Four school leaders, two from each sector respectively were approached to share their perceptions regarding the same. The researchers used an in-depth qualitative interview with a help semi-structured interview topic guide. The findings reveal that ECCE is a specialized field and that there is a need for ample work to be done to recognize this field. The data also revealed that there are discrepancies &nbsp;concerning recruitment criteria, teacher appraisal and credits for continuous professional development. More so, there is a need for national level agenda to address the gaps of competency and licensing framework. We present a policy recommendation as closure of this paper for Pakistan to have a task force on ECCE with the relevant field experts who could contribute with their pragmatic experience and align Pakistan ECCE landscape with global standards</p> Humera Naz Fayyaz Jawad Ali Dr. Shelina Bhamani Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-08-01 2021-08-01 4 4 466 476 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss2-2021(466-476) What Should We Learn from New Trends in Teacher Education https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/786 <p><em>This theoretical paper discusses the salient features of new trends in Teacher Education and their implications for teachers’ learning in 21st century. With this, the paper represents Social Justice Approach, Master-Apprentice Approach, Teacher Identity Approach, Reflective practices Approach, Competence Approach and, Applied knowledge Approaches. In addition, the paper presents seven elements of effective Professional Development required being a 21<sup>st</sup> century teacher as suggested by Darling-Hammond et al., (2017). &nbsp;Besides, the paper describes ‘How teachers learn’ suggested by Jones and Dexter (2014). &nbsp;It further discusses the questions and concerns that have been raised about these new trends. In addition, it highlights the issues faced by Pakistani teacher education program. Finally, the paper recommends what trend(s) Pakistani teacher Education should adapt that help teachers becoming prepare for 21<sup>st</sup> century.</em></p> Preeta Hinduja Altaf Hussain Shahnaz Noor Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-07-27 2021-07-27 4 4 459 465 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss2-2021(459-465) A Comparative Analysis of the Pronunciation of Engineers and Bureaucrats: An Explanatory Research https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/776 <p><em>It is a fact that English has become part and parcel of our society. All the fields of our society have been affected by English in the modern epoch. Major important issues pertaining to English language teaching are still unanswered because of lack of strategy for teaching English in our educational institutes. Similarly, pronunciation is one of the major factors, which ruins the image of a speaker, although he or she is good in grammatical and other features of English language. The purpose of instant study is to find out the reasons behind mispronunciation of English language in our society. For this purpose, two types of important professional fields of our society were taken up for experiment, which were bureaucrat and engineer. Similarly, two types of research tools were adopted, first was an Observation Sheet and second was structured open-ended questionnaire. The results show different aspects of both targeted groups. It was revealed by the research that bureaucrats are in favour of going with correct pronunciation, whereas engineers are not as enthusiastic to be corrected in pronunciation as bureaucrats.</em></p> Afshan Dr. Sikandar Ali Anum Saeed Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-07-19 2021-07-19 4 4 452 458 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss2-2021(452-458) Pragmatic Competence: Difficulties faced by Pakistani EFL Learners https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/780 <p><em>The study investigates the pragmatic knowledge; pragmatic competence level as well as speech act strategies used by Pakistani EFL learners. It reveals that Master level English language learners are unable to produce and comprehend the intended meanings in the target language. As a result, pragmatic failure and misunderstanding occurred. Pragmatic comprehension and production is essential for effective communication especially for EFL learners in this modern age where people have to communicate cross-culturally as English is being used as lingua franca internationally. The study explores the problems faced by EFL learners in comprehending and producing the correct speech acts in English. The study used two data collection tools: a WDCT in which speech acts of refusal and apology are used to find out pragmatic competence level and difficulties faced by Pakistani EFL learners. A Likert Scale questionnaire is used to know about the views and suggestions of the Pakistani EFL learners about the teaching and learning environment regarding the pragmatics. The data of speech acts of refusal is analyzed qualitatively according to the taxonomy of Beebe, keeping in view frequency, shift and content of semantic formulas. While the data of speech acts of apology is analyzed according to the speech act strategies of Cohen. Data collected through the Likert scale questionnaire is analyzed quantitatively. The study finds out that pragmatic competence level of Pakistani EFL learners is very low as well as they have to face many difficulties which result in pragmatic failure.&nbsp; Findings of the study show that Pakistani EFL learners lack knowledge of pragmatics in the target language. EFL learners acknowledged that pragmatic knowledge is very important for effective communication and it should be an integral part of syllabus and classroom activities.</em></p> Muhammad Ashraf Dr. Sikander Ali Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-07-09 2021-07-09 4 4 444 451 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss2-2021(444-451) Analyzing George Bernard Shaw’s Portrayal of Women in the Light of Postfeminist Theory https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/760 <p><em>The paper aims at investigating the critical opinions about Bernard Shaw’s ambivalent relation to feminism. In this regard, the researchers highlight the emerging role of postfeminism and its overlapping elements with the Islamic portrayal of womanhood. Shaw differs from his predecessors drastically – he portrays independent female characters as compared to the invisible and submissive females of the past. Thus, one of the striking features of Shaw’s drama is the depiction of liberated women. The Shavian women do not consider men folk as their rivals. There is a shift from powerless to empowered women in academia. The researchers find out that there is an ideological conflict between feminism and Islam but as far as postfeminism is concerned, there is none. Rather, postfeminism propagates and supports the Islamic concept of womanhood thoroughly. It is also worth noting that feminist ideas and ideology have greatly dented the social and political fabric of mankind and human civilization in general. Whereas, postfeminism propagates in favor of maintaining a balanced position for womanhood in life which is a balance between social and individual life, and a balance between professional and family life. The purpose of this article is to promote a better understanding of the status of women in Islam and its overlapping and common areas with postfeminism, that is, God has equated female folk at par with their male folk. The research is significant as it challenges the western notion of women in Islam and dispels the erroneous notions of suppression of women in Islam. The prime finding of this research is that postfeminism proclaims equal footing for men and women in life, as enshrined in the Holy Quran.&nbsp; Further, the researchers lament that just because of myopic-minded people, the world is not making any progress intellectually. The researchers recommend that there is a dire need to promote liberal intellectuals like Shaw who harbor no bias against Islam and Muslims to maintain peace and order in the world.</em></p> Dr. Shahid Abbas Dr. Ijaz Asghar Qamar Hussain Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-07-03 2021-07-03 4 4 438 443 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss2-2021(438-443) Analysis of Impact on Mental Health and Motivation Levels of Higher-Levels Students Due to Novel Virus COVID-19 https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/764 <p><em>The main purpose of this study was to analyze the impact on Mental Health and Motivation levels of university students because of nCOV-19. This study analyzed the perception of students’ mental health and Motivation level due to nCOV-19. The population comprised 25000 students of the University of Education Multan, Baha Uddin Zakariya University Multan, and MNS University of Agriculture Multan. They selected a sample of 250 students through the cluster and stratified sampling technique. A survey was conducted for the quantitative components of the study amongst students using a self-made questionnaire based on the factors of mental health and motivation level. Three factors of mental health are stress, anxiety, and depression. The researcher distributed and administered the questionnaires himself. The study reviewed relevant literature regarding nCOV-19, character and higher educational institutions, and other factors influencing these variables. The received information was broken down using illustrative and inferential measurements. Descriptive statistics included mean, median, mode, and standard deviation. The results show that students receive a high level of data collected about the motivational level of students. Both anxiety and depression at a low level, and stress at moderate level amongst university students during the nCOV-19 Pandemic. Inferential statistics included t-test, Pearson correlation, and linear regression. The commonness of stress and depression in females is greater than males with a minimum margin, which shows females face a slightly higher level of stress and depression than males. But the commonness of anxiety in females is greater than males with a moderate margin, which shows females face a higher level of anxiety than males. Pearson coefficient correlation indicates a negative low degree of correlation between the impact of motivational levels and students' academic achievement.</em></p> Shabiha Anjum Farah Latif Naz Abdul Quddus Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-07-03 2021-07-03 4 4 431 437 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss2-2021(431-437) Visual representation of COVID-19 in Children‘s Literature: A Semiotic Analysis https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/767 <p><em>The massive spread of Coronavirus has badly affected the entire globe and lives of the people irrespective of age or gender. Children in this regard are no exemption. They are affected not only physically but also emotionally and mentally due to the virus and quarantine period. This study aims to provide a semiotic analysis of the visual representations of Covid-19 in the children’s book covers selected on a global level. These covers are new emerging literature and serve to narrate a global discourse related to COVID-19. The researchers have followed the qualitative approach and the data have been collected using purposive sampling technique to provide a holistic interpretation of the selected covers. Framework, selected for the study, is ‘Semiotic Analysis’ by Kress and van Leeuwen (2006). The findings revealed that the participants’ actions and overall circumstances in these covers are highly meaningful. The action narrative and colorful illustrations aim to motivate the young audience in a positive manner. Furthermore, they communicate a message of hope and urge them to fight against the virus. The visuals in these covers are therefore quite significant in their meanings and interpretations.</em></p> Huda Tufail Dr. Mamona Yasmin Khan Prof. Dr. Uzma Qureshi Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-07-03 2021-07-03 4 4 423 430 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss2-2021(423-430) Evaluation of Public Transport: A Case Study of Hyderabad Sindh Pakistan https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/668 <p><em>The spatial and economic growth of cities and regions is heavily influenced by transportation. A better knowledge of public transportation will help to clarify the positions of the public and private sectors, as well as recognize the critical government position. To study the problems and issues of the public transportation system, Qasimabad, Hyderabad is selected as a study area due to some serious issues of public transportation. Personal observations and questionnaires were used to gather data from the research area. And for analyzing the data SPSS and MS Excel are used. The results reveal that the existing public transportation system is not meeting the needs of residents. Hence use of private transportation is high and causing environmental and traffic jam problems. As 68% of respondents use a motorbike for recreational purposes, 64% of respondents are not using public transport due to safety factors. In general, 54% of respondents were not satisfied with the service of public transport. As people are willing to use public transport but due to some factors such as safety, they are not using public transport so it is suggested that both vehicles and roads must be safe for users. This study aims to study the existing scenario of public transportation in terms of services and facilities, and people’s perception about public transportation. So it is concluded that people are tending to use public transport but under some certain conditions (factors preventing the use of public transport), if these concerns are solved then public transport system will become more efficient.</em></p> Abdul Ghafar Zulfiqar Ali Lashari Shahbaz Khan Samoo Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-07-01 2021-07-01 4 4 414 422 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss2-2021(414-422) The Impact of Climate Change Coverage on Public Adherence towards Health Threat: An Empirical Validation of the Health Belief Model https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/757 <p><em>Owing to the emerging challenge of smog and the controversies over its causes and solution, the current study seeks to find out the influence of media messages on health-related behavior and the mediating role of the threat perception and perceived benefits towards health-related behaviors in Pakistan. A cross-sectional research design vis-à-vis survey method was used to investigate the influence of media, perceived threat, and perceived benefits on the health-related behaviors of the public. For this purpose, a survey was conducted in Lahore (including urban, peri-urban areas) using a close-ended questionnaire. A sample of 232 respondents was obtained. Data were analyzed Smart with PLS software to examine the media influence on smog-related health behavior. The findings indicated that media positively influence the smog-related health behavior of the public. It was found that the relationship between media and smog-related health behavior is interceded by perceived benefits and perceived threats. Furthermore, perceived threats were found to be a stronger predictor in determining the media and smog-related health behaviors. The implications of the findings are discussed.</em></p> Moneeba Iftikhar Dr. Muhammad Yousaf Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-06-24 2021-06-24 4 4 402 413 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss2-2021(402-413) Effect of Self-Regulated Learning on Students’ Academic Achievement in the Subject of English at Secondary Level https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/753 <p><em>The study aimed at finding out the effect of students' self-regulated learning on their academic achievement in the subject of English. The study was conducted at the secondary level in the province of Punjab. It was quantitative in nature and employed a true experimental design (pre-test post-test control group). It was significant for teachers, curriculum stakeholders, training bodies, and policymakers. For the study sampling, a simple random sampling technique was used. Students' achievement test was developed for pre-test and post-test. The study sample consisted of sixty students of grade IX and they were divided into two groups; experimental and control. A pre-test was conducted on both groups to measure their current status of academic achievement. After the pre-test, the subject of English was taught to the experimental group by using self-regulated learning strategies while the traditional method (dominantly lecture method) was adopted to teach the control group. A post-test was conducted after an intervention of 16 weeks. The results of the test were compared by using a t-test. For data analysis, SPSS was used and results were interpreted accordingly. The study results revealed a significant difference between the test score results of the students. The study recommended appropriate teachers' training to use self-regulated learning strategies effectively at the secondary level. Textbook contents were also recommended to be devised supportive to gauge self-regulated learning.</em></p> Sadia Rasheed Dr. Mumtaz Akhtar Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-06-24 2021-06-24 4 4 395 401 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss2-2021(395-401)