sjesr https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs <p><iframe src="https://sjesr.org.pk" width="100%" height="3050"> </iframe></p> Sir Syed Journal of Education & Social Research en-US sjesr 2706-8285 Domestic Violence on Women and its Implications on their Health https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/749 <p><em>Violence against women is a severe violation of human rights and ranging from domestic and intimate partner violence to sexual harassment and assault. It is widely recognized as a serious human rights abuse. Violence has substantial consequences on women’s health. To evaluate the effects of domestic abuse and violence on the physical and mental health of women a study was conducted in district Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan. Data were drawn from 222 women. Sampling was carried out using the multi-stage process of random sampling. Survey method was used for data collection and Statistical methods such as chi-square, correlation, linear and multiple regressions were used to analyze the data in this study. The findings showed a significant relationship between the physical and mental health of women due to domestic violence. This study emphasizes the need for justified women empowerment and a multidisciplinary approach to develop health measures, which will effectively address the problem of domestic violence.</em></p> Saira Siddiqui Nabeela Farah Syed Kazam Hussain Shah Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-06-19 2021-06-19 4 2 380 385 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss2-2021(380-385) Post-modernist Elements in Javed Ihsas’s Poetic Collection ‘Ayina (The Mirror)’ https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/732 <p><em>Javed Ihsas is a prominent contemporary Pashto poet, critic, and columnist. He writes poetry with the new spirit and style of the modern critical theories of literature and philosophy. In his verses, we can observe the elements of Modernism and Post-modernism as well. In this study, we explored the post-modernist elements in his poetry, especially in his Pashto poetic collection titled Ayina. The word 'Ayina' is a Pashto word that means 'The Mirror'. The very title of the collection gives a symbolic representation in the sense that it depicts a realistic picture of society. This study is an attempt to examine the Post-modernist elements in his poetry by using a post-modernist approach.</em> <em>The poet touches on the elements of post-modernism in his poetry such as the element of social construction; the notion that </em><em>ideas, politics, and language are socially constructed, consumerism, postponement, etc. This study explores the post-modernist elements in Javed Ihsas’ poetry which are will prove a beacon light for the young poets.</em></p> Muhammad Ramzan Shah Faisalullah Dr. Abdul Karim Khan Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-06-15 2021-06-15 4 2 374 379 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss2-2021(374-379) Measuring Structural and Psychological Empowerment in Nursing Profession: Scale Validation through Pilot Study https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/733 <p><em>Research in the field of the nursing profession has attained its heights, especially in the developed countries. Most of the research in this field has addressed nursing empowerment, work attitude, and organizational outcomes. This study aims to extend understanding of whether structural and psychological empowerment drive work outcomes. Thus, this study has attempted to develop and customize a scale for primary data collection. Researchers highlighted various steps of questionnaire development, data collection procedure, and establishing reliability and validity at the pilot level. These steps help researchers to ground data collection tools in extant literature. Initial findings from pilot study data are reported. Data for this study was collected through a closed-ended questionnaire by employing a convenience sampling technique from registered nurses from public-private sector hospitals in Hyderabad, Sindh. Cronbach’s alpha, mean, and corrected total-item correlation</em><em> for all items are well above the threshold values. Findings of EFA shown that there are seven factors in the model. The CFA identified that every factor arises as a single factor and loads onto its construct with significant levels of indices.</em></p> Najia Shaikh Ashique Jhatial Muneerudin Soomro Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-06-14 2021-06-14 4 2 366 373 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss2-2021(366-373) Inclusive Education in Azad Jammu and Kashmir: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Secondary Schools https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/597 <p><em>Inclusive education represents the concern of the entire school and is committed to providing quality education to all students in the most effective way, so that special education and general education are consistent. The study aimed to analyze inclusive education in Azad Jammu and Kashmir. The study was descriptive in nature and a cross-sectional survey was applied to collect the data. All 538 secondary school teachers and headteachers of District Pooch were the population of the study. A stratified random sampling technique was used to select the sample. The researcher selected 185 secondary school teachers and 45 head teachers through a proportionate stratified random sampling technique as a sample. A questionnaire for teachers and headteachers was used as a research instrument in this study. Data were collected through personal visits and postal service. Data were analyzed through mean scores and standard deviation. Based on analysis it was found that inclusive education provides an opportunity for the enjoyment and implementation of full human rights without any discrimination because inclusive education allows understanding individual differences. It is recommended that the school Education Department of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJ&amp;K) may introduce inclusive education at the district and tehsil level. Further, they need to plan for all teachers and headteachers to provide awareness about inclusive education.</em></p> Dr. Nazir Haider Shah Dr. Muhammad Naqeeb ul Khalil Shaheen Dr. Sadaf Zamir Ahmed Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-06-09 2021-06-09 4 2 359 365 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss2-2021(359-365) Student’s Perception regarding the Effect of Faculty based Assessment Approaches on their Academic Performance at University Level https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/737 <p><em>Instructional and assessment methods are varied and preferred by their teachers at higher-level institutions. A teacher guides their students with detail information and instructions to achieve their educational targets. Students share views regarding their faculty norms and standards that influence the adoption of their study methods. The major focus of this study was to find out the faculty-based differences of learners' views of assessment and its relationship with achievement at the university level. The study was correlational and the survey was conducted to investigate the research problem. All the public sector universities of Punjab were considered as a population of the study and only seven (07) public sector universities were taken as a sample. A questionnaire, students' perception of assessment (Waldrip et al., 2008) was adapted to collect the data from the respondents. Using the mean scores, standard deviation, t-test, and regression the collected data were analyzed. The findings of the study showed students have not the same perception about the assessment and the study concluded a significant relationship between students' perception of assessment and academic outcomes. Based on the study results, it was recommended that each faculty should well inform the students about the assessment methods and strategies for their outcomes improvement.</em></p> Sadia Mushtaq Dr. Erum Aslam Khan Dr. Muhammad Zafar Iqbal Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-06-09 2021-06-09 4 2 352 358 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss2-2021(352-358) Comparing the Academic Motivation of Conventional and Distance Education Students: A Study about a Turkish University https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/735 <p><em>Distance and online education are becoming increasingly common in the current era. Along with many purely online and distance education universities, many conventional universities are also offering programs through distance education. Students studying in distance education programs have a different environment, culture, study habits, and other factors that may influence them and their motivation level. This study compares academic motivation levels between conventional and distance education students studying in a Turkish university program. Data were collected from 218 students through the Academic Motivation Scale. Independent T-test and Chi-square tests were used to analyze the data with the help of the SPSS program. The results show that the academic motivation level of the students in a conventional program is statistically significantly higher than those studying through a distance program. Moreover, while there were differences based on all three demographical variables (age, gender, and grade), statistically significant differences were found only based on age and grade. The study suggests that there is a need to add motivational materials and strategies for distance education students. This especially becomes important for those conventional education students who have been forced to learn through distance/ online education during Covid-19.</em></p> Muhammad Abid Malik Bulent Akkaya Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-06-09 2021-06-09 4 2 341 351 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss2-2021(341-351) The Effects of Natural Resource Degradation on Rural Women's Health: A Sociological Analysis https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/665 <p><em>Natural resource degradation in developing countries is more likely to generate eventual threats of exhaustion. Major changes in weather patterns, seasonal cycles, and crop failure due to heavy rainfall have affected both men and women in rural areas of Pakistan. However, since women in rural areas of Pakistan are actively engaged in natural resource management, they are more likely to bear the brunt of the burden due to their traditional roles of washing, food preparation, water collection, and family care. Under a qualitative research design, the current research paper has focused specifically on how natural resource degradation affects the health of rural women. The research was conducted using thematic analysis, through an in-depth study of the day-to-day activities of rural women and the pressure experienced by them. To do so, sixteen in-depth interviews were conducted with rural women by using interview and observation protocol. The findings revealed that rural women were dedicated to their work despite natural resource degradation they are bound to their household responsibilities, leading to mental and physical stress, as a result, overburdening and unhealthy lifestyles.</em></p> Maria Saeed Dr. Amber Ferdoos Aysha Jawaid Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-05-25 2021-05-25 4 2 333 340 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss2-2021(333-340) Pahari Distinctiveness without Pahari Language: A Study of Language Attitudes of the Pahari Community https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/731 <p><em>Pahari language spoken in Murree and its suburbs is in contact with Urdu, the national language of Pakistan. It is also in contact with Punjabi and English. The present study explores the views and attitudes of the Pahari speaking community regarding the Pahari identity and culture vis-à-vis languages like Pahari, Punjabi, Urdu, and English. The study is ethnographic and is based on detailed observation and in-depth interviews of a sample of 91 people belonging to three generations. The study concludes that Pahari speaking community especially the Abbasi tribe, on the whole, claims to protect their culture and identity but gradually each new generation is hesitant in continuing Pahari as the symbol of their identity. As a result, language is, to a great extent, shifting towards Urdu. On a minor level, its shift to English and Punjabi cannot be ignored. The paper also explores certain reasons latent behind this kind of attitude.</em></p> Dr. Muhammad Gulfraz Abbasi Dr. Zafar Iqbal Khattak Dr. Yasir Arafat Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-05-25 2021-05-25 4 2 325 332 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss2-2021(325-332) Understanding the Perceptions of Teachers of Sukkur IBA Community Colleges and the Teachers of Public Schools of City Shikarpur about the Curriculum Ideologies: A Comparative Study https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/728 <p><em>The current study aims at understanding the perceptions of teachers about curriculum ideologies in the context of Sindh, Pakistan. A quantitative approach was employed within it the descriptive design was used. The data was collected through an adopted questionnaire developed by Schiro 2008. The sample of the study was a hundred teachers and the convenience sampling technique was adopted in this study. The data were analyzed through SPSS (SPSS) version 23.0 and percentages were calculated to know the perceptions of teachers regarding four curriculum ideologies namely scholar academic ideology, social efficiency ideology, learner-centered ideology, and social reconstruction ideology. The results revealed that learner-centered ideology was the most preferred curriculum ideology among the teachers of Five Sukkur IBA Community colleges whereas the Scholar Academic ideology has been the least favorable for them. However, Scholar Academy ideology was the most preferred, and social reconstruction ideology was the least preferred among Teachers of Public Schools of Shikarpur City.</em></p> Imran Ahmed Moriani Naveed Ahmad Taseer Amjad Ali Rind Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-05-25 2021-05-25 4 2 317 324 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss2-2021(317-324) Perspectives of Headteachers, Teachers, Parents and Caregivers about Early Childhood Education Program in Punjab: A Qualitative Study https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/726 <p><em>This study was aimed to investigate the perspectives of headteachers, teachers, caregivers, and parents about the prevailing Early Childhood Education (ECE) program in public schools of Punjab. Participants of the study were selected through a convenient sampling technique. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 6 headteachers, 6 teachers, 3 caregivers, and 3 parents. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the collected data.&nbsp; All data related to eighteen participants were coded. Clustering similar codes helped in identifying sub-categories from data. Several assertions were developed by comparing and contrasting various categories and sub-categories. The findings of this research highlighted the missing facilities of ECE in public schools i.e. separate ECE rooms, trained ECE teachers, absence of caregivers, unavailability of a separate budget for ECE, provision of ECE kit, well-equipped playgrounds, reluctant behavior of teachers as well as parents dissatisfaction with teachers’ performance.&nbsp; The results of the study are useful for policymakers, administration of the Quaid-e-Azam Academy for Educational Development (QAED) to develop the program.</em></p> Saima Malik Muhammad Zaheer Asghar Laila Khalid Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-05-25 2021-05-25 4 2 309 316 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss2-2021(309-316) Local Perception about Caesarian Section among Post Caesarian Section Women in Pakistan https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/725 <p>Birthing is a critical moment in the life of a mother. The biomedical practice of the Caesarian Section (C-section) does not exist in a vacuum but is under the influence of the sociocultural environment. However, deciding between methods of birth and the perception about the C-section shows a gap and dearth in the present literature. This paper aims at understanding what social and cultural factors construct the perceptions and experiences of the Caesarian Section among post-C-section- women belonging to different socio-economic statuses. Moreover, it explores how these factors influence Pakistani women’s decision-making regarding childbirth methods. The paper uses a qualitative yet multi-sited locale approach, employing semi-structured interviews from 20 post-C-section women mainly from Islamabad and Rawalpindi region; 10 women belong to lower socio-economic status whereas, 10 to the upper one. Different themes from data were identified and obtained for analysis.</p> <p>The perception and experience of the C-section fluctuate with social, economic, and cultural factors. The influence of biomedical and intra-household politics on the decision of C-section is much conspicuous and evident. Affluent families practice C-sections under dominant power dynamics without any reasoning. For those who can afford C-section, is perceived as a luxury and artificial motherhood in the eyes of ‘’the others’’ whereas, normal birthing was true and natural motherhood. The social construction of the C-section suggests that social and cultural forces play a decisive role. C-section is only acceptable if there is an emergency otherwise natural birth is the most suitable method of childbirth. Along with advocating C-sections in critical medical conditions, an awareness campaign against C-sections is also imperative for it has severe consequences.</p> Ikram Badshah Zakiya Rubab Mohsin Jan Alam Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-05-25 2021-05-25 4 2 299 308 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss2-2021(299-308) Worship in Islam and Contemplation in God's Creation (An Analytical Study) https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/724 <p><em>The contemplation of God’s creation is one of the greatest forms of worship in Islam &nbsp;every human being, when he observes the different scenes of this universe of colors and smells, enjoys seeing some of them so much that he longs to repeat this pleasure</em>۔<em>&nbsp;&nbsp;It is not amazing, therefore, that countless Quranic verses give confidence this action and do so using a range of methods to appeal to every temperament and religious state. The mean is to switch people away from their dulled senses, awful habits, and monotonous familiarity, and encourage them to observe the signs of their Lord in the world with insight and vulnerable hearts. True Islamic contemplation can only spring from a mind that believes in God and a mind that submits to Him and His glorious Attributes. This is the unwavering faith of oneness (tawhÏd), which is to bear witness that the Almighty is the One and only God Who created, governs, and maintain the universe. Any other form of contemplation of the attractiveness and brilliance of the heavens and the earth would be measured atheism or polytheism (shirk) because the contemplator would not be distinguished, let alone admiring and express thanks to the Creator. In all religions, after beliefs, the highest importance is given to worship. Worship and contemplation are inseparable.</em></p> Dr. Samina Begum Dr. Hafiz Muhammad Ibrar Ullah Dr. Hashmat Begum Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-05-25 2021-05-25 4 2 295 298 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss2-2021(295-298) Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction of Employees: The Case of a Public Sector University, Islamabad https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/715 <p><em>This study aims to investigate and highlight the factors significant in cultivating satisfaction regarding jobs among the employees of a leading public sector university in Islamabad (termed PSU henceforth). For this purpose salary, stress /burnout, and relationship with supervisors have been taken as key factors to gauge the contentment level of employees and how they can be motivated to complete their tasks effectively and efficiently.&nbsp; Based on quantitative research methods, the data was primarily collected through a self-administered adapted survey questionnaire. The target population included teachers of the Social Science Department of PSU. Stratified sampling was done randomly to collect data from seven departments of the faculty of Social Sciences. Fifty questionnaires were distributed among these seven Social Science departments. SPSS and Cronbach’s alpha was used to analyze the data while the latter was utilized to infer the results too. The findings of the current study provide valuable insight into the factors that lead to job satisfaction. Moreover, results show a positive influence on job satisfaction concerning higher management. Regarding stress, the findings reveal that employees were somewhat not happy with the work stress and the same results were deduced for salary. The results postulate salary, stress, and relationship with higher management as intertwined and as having a significant impact on job satisfaction. This article may benefit society and organizations in creating awareness about the importance of productive employees. The research suggests that a satisfied employee is motivated to achieve the organizational goals and objectives, thus, contributes positively to the productivity of the organization.</em></p> Hina Afzal Dr. Saadia Abid Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-05-25 2021-05-25 4 2 288 294 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss2-2021(288-294) Theatrical Milieu: Investigating Drama and Theatre in tandem with Socio-Political Landscape of Pakistan https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/697 <p><em>This study is an attempt to trace the impacts of socio-political conditions in the formation and evolution of drama and theatre traditions in Pakistan. It provides the genesis of theatre and drama in Pakistan intertwining it with the past and present situations of this genre of literature. It also ventures at the inert position of drama and theatre in English in Pakistan. Qualitative textual analysis is conducted to analyze and highlight the major available critical acumen in the genre of Pakistani drama and theatre. The methodology adopted is interpretive of the theatrical performances by major theatre groups, and the contributions of key playwrights in cementing the foundation of drama and theatre traditions. The major findings are related to the socio-political situations prevalent since the inception of Pakistan and their significance in shaping both dramas in writing and drama in performance. It also examines the role of pioneer theatrical groups and their projects that carved a niche in the theatrical landscape of Pakistan. As compared to fiction theatre and drama remained sporadic and lackluster affair in Pakistan, it is vital to have a deeper understanding and clarity of the socio-political issues that shaped resistance &amp;political theatres and later commercial theatre groups.</em></p> Fareeha Zaheer Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-05-25 2021-05-25 4 2 278 287 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss2-2021(278-287) The Effects of Assigning Homework on the Achievement of Students at the Primary School Level https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/598 <p><em>Assigning homework to students make they are learning more effective and they comprehend the assigned task in depth by applying drill and practice activities. The current study examines the effects of assigning homework on the achievement of students at the primary level. The population of the study was 100 boys’ primary schools. The sample respondents of the study were students of class 5<sup>th </sup>consist of a total of sixty students and each group such as experimental, comparison, and control group was twenty students. The experimental, comparison and control groups of the students were selected by the flipping of the coin as to which will be experimental, comparison, and the control group. The researcher adopted a simple random sampling technique. The data were collected through pre and post-standardized achievement tests based on mixed items (mix tests) developed by the researcher. The researcher developed fourteen lesson plans to teach the fourteen lessons. The pre and post standardized achievement tests were conducted, collected, and evaluated under the supervision of the researcher. Data were analyzed in the form of one-way ANOVA to find out the significant difference in f-value and p-value of the experimental, comparison, and control group regarding the 14 selected topics taught. The research concluded that there was no statistically significant difference in p-value and f-value in the achievement of the students in experimental, comparison, and control group from the lessons 1-6 due to repetition and diffusion in lessons and there was a statistically significant difference in p-value and f-value in experimental, comparison and control group from the lessons 7-14 taught. The data were presented in the form of tables.</em></p> Bakht Jamal Dr. Syed Asad Abbas Rizvi Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-05-25 2021-05-25 4 2 271 277 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss2-2021(271-277) Principals’ Perceptions of Deteriorating Quality of Education at Secondary School Certificate Level in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/722 <p><em>This descriptive study was carried out in six different districts of KP province of Pakistan and they were Mansehra, Malakand, Kohat, Dera Ismail Khan, Charsadda, and Bannu. There was the common objection that the quality of education has declined at various stages of education. This study focused on the analysis of the main causes of deterioration of quality at the Secondary School Level in the province of KP, Pakistan. These major causes of deterioration of excellence in education were revealed by a review of the study. Some key factors, considered to be the foundation of quality education, were highlighted. The methodology of the study was properly described. The researcher himself visited the sampled institutions and administered the questionnaire to the respondents to collect the data. Out of six different districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, 440 Principals of Government Boys' Secondary Schools were selected as the population of this study. The sample contained 132 principals (30%). The tool of the study included a structured interview containing six open-ended items. Both qualitative and quantitative treatment was given to the analysis of data and presented in graphical and tabular forms. The study uncovered major causes of deterioration about quality at the secondary level, which is an ineffective system of monitoring and accountability, flawed examination system, insufficient infrastructural facilities, congested classrooms, lack of competent and trained teaching faculty, un-warranted political involvement, outdated teaching methods, and inadequate latest teaching facilities. The study also suggested various teaching strategies, which are suitable for various types of learners and could be applied in classrooms.</em></p> Dr. Mohammad Javed Prof. Dr. Syed Manzoor Hussain Shah Dr. Habib Elahi Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-05-25 2021-05-25 4 2 263 270 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss2-2021(263-270) Knowledge and Humility of Hazrat Abu Dharr Ghafari (An Analytical Study) https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/721 <p><em>Hazrat Abu Dharr Ghaffari (RA) is a glorious Companion, and in fact, the Companions are the people whom Allah has chosen to accompany His Messenger (SAW). He took up permanent residence in a village in Syria and then moved to Damascus during the caliphate of Hazrat Usman Ghani (RA) and continued his sermons</em>۔<em> He spent the last days of his life in the suburbs of Madinah, The tribe belonged to the Bani Ghiffar. After accepting Islam, they fell in love with the Holy Prophet, He did not like to accumulate wealth in the world. He used to avoid meeting people unnecessarily </em>۔<em> He was not afraid of anyone when he spoke the truth, while he endured all kinds of hardships for the sake of Islam. You used to say that people are born to die. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) gave him the title of “Masih al-Islam”. After him, he became detached from the world. Hazrat Umar (RA) considered him equal to Abdullah bin Masood in knowledge.</em></p> Dr. Hafiz Muhammad Ibrar Ullah Dr. Hashmat Begum Dr. Samina Begum Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-05-25 2021-05-25 4 2 258 262 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss2-2021(258-262) The Impact of Language Attitude on the use of Swear Words: A Sociolinguistic Study of Pashtu Non-native Speakers of English https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/659 <p><em>Swear words make an important aspect of any language despite their taboo nature. Taking this feature of language into account, this paper investigates how the language attitude of Pashtu non-native speakers of English towards Pashtu and English languages might impact the use of swear words in these languages in different situations. Data from30 male undergraduate university students were collected through semi-structured interviews. The analysis revealed that Pashtu non-native speakers of English had a positive attitude towards English and Pashtu languages owing to instrumental and integrative motivation, respectively. Swearing in Pashtu and English was shown to be determined by the speakers’ perceptions of the degree of offensiveness of swear words in the languages, social status of the users of the language in the society, and the setting and context in which those words were used. It was concluded that the positive attitude of Pashtu non-native speakers towards English and Pashtu resulted in their swearing-in English and Pashtu for different reasons: swearing-in English was controlled by the high status of the language in the society, whereas swearing-in Pashtu was used as a marker of solidarity and covert prestige.</em></p> Uzma Khalil Amjad Saleem Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-05-25 2021-05-25 4 2 251 257 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss2-2021(251-257) Body of Woman As A Site For Battle: A Critical Study of Sidhwa’s Ice-Candy Man https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/714 <p><em>Partitioning of the subcontinent into Pakistan and India is a mega event in the history of South Asia that haunts the minds of the inhabitants because of the untold destruction and the atrocities inflicted on the migrants. The later generations come to know of the havocs carved on women's bodies mostly through stories of the victims or who witnessed molestation of women. In this connection, this article aims to critically analyze the novel Ice-Candy Man by Sidhwa which delineates the defilement of women at the periphery. The views of different feminist critics constitute the theoretical framework while Fairclough’s social discourse model serves as a methodological framework. For analysis, the technique of Content Analysis has been employed. The findings reveal that Sidhwa has caricatured the predicament of the women whose bodies became sites for male aggression as icons of the ethnic groups during the communal strives. They undergo physical and sexual furiousness of men before, during, and after the partition. Men dehumanized them to disgrace the opponents/the other. The novel may, further, be studied from psychoanalytical, cultural, and Marxist perspectives.</em></p> Dr. Shamshad Rasool Dr. Raza-E-Mustafa Dr. Zahoor Hussain Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-05-11 2021-05-11 4 2 243 250 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss2-2021(243-250) Role of Building Sector in Consumption of Energy in Pakistan https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/666 <p><em>Energy Efficiency has become an integral necessity at a global scale and with the rapidly escalating population around the world, the energy demand has also amplified to extreme levels, making the provision of energy a real challenge. Henceforth, implementation of more efficient conservative measures must be targeted as the supply of fossil fuels is not infinite and the extensive energy consumption is causing harm to the environment. With the continuously growing demand for energy, and as per the forecast of the International Energy Agency, it is expected that the rise will be up to fifty percent by 2030. Recently, more than eighty percent of primary energy demand is being fulfilled by fossil fuels; and the reservoirs of fossil fuels are fast depleting. The result is climate change at the global level, leading to unprecedented and varied effects on weather events, droughts, and hurricanes in many countries and also flooding in major sectors of the world. It has been realized that fifty percent of the energy produced in the world is utilized by residential buildings. To control the emission of greenhouse gases, it is important to use architectural design techniques to make residential buildings more energy efficient for maintaining the thermal comfort level of occupants.</em></p> Yasmeen Abid Maan Dr. Munazzah Akhtar Maryam Jamil Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-05-09 2021-05-09 4 2 236 242 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss2-2021(236-242) An Analytical Study of Laws, Determining the Gender of a Transgender Person in Pakistan https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/671 <p><em>Living organisms are divided into two genders, generally, whether they are plants, animals, birds, insects, or human beings. These two genders are males and females and are often called binary genders. Among the human species, sometimes, babies are born with some disabilities in their reproductive organs and such babies have been there in human societies for a time, unknown. In ancient Arab, these people were called 'khunsas'. They were used as slaves by the royal elite of the Arabic peninsula. Deen-e-Islam has given a large number of rights to khunsas and provides them many opportunities to live with honor and grace. Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act 2018, was the first statute passed by the Parliament of Pakistan that protects and promotes the rights of khunsa people in Pakistan, specifically. In this paper, an effort is made to analyze the principles of Islam and the Laws provided in the Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act 2018, to determine the gender disability of khunsa persons. A comparative study is also a part of this paper on the approach related to gender determination of a khunsa person, between Hanafi School, Itsna Ashari School, and the laws of Pakistan.</em></p> Dr. Fozia Naseem Dr. Rooh ul Amin Dr. Ghulam Muhammad Awan Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-05-09 2021-05-09 4 2 231 235 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss2-2021(231-235) Hurdles in the Transformation of Peace Process: Indicators for Universities in Pakistan https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/707 <p><em>The present article represents the most operational and implacable indicators for the transformation of peace in the universities of Pakistan. The main objective of the study is to find out the major hurdles that educational institutions are facing in the way of the development peace culture. Furthermore, this study provides the highlights for the peace development in the universities. The qualitative analysis was used to collect the opinions of the respondents. For this purpose, a semi-structured interview was designed for the public university heads/chairman of different social sciences departments. Moreover, the data were analyzed with NVIVO that used for the in-depth thematic analysis and presents in the form of a word cloud (MADQDA 18). The study findings, however, show that the universities are facing different dimensions that are related to teacher competency, student behaviors, and social influences. The study further recommended, that according to the indicators there is a need to plan flexible and operational strategies to overcome the hurdles that are creating unrest in the educational institutions, there is space to work on teachers and students relationship, develop moral and valued based class environment and involve students in creative and productive activities for the peaceful setting in the present phenomena.</em></p> Farah Latif Naz Khalid Khurshid Javed Iqbal Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-05-08 2021-05-08 4 2 222 230 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss2-2021(222-230) An Understanding of the Students’ Perception about COVID-19 Pandemic and its Impacts on Pakhtun Society https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/704 <p><em>COVID-19 Pandemic has different effects on society. Its effects have been differently perceived by different classes; one such important class is the university students because they play an important role in the development of a society. To explore their perception, this article used an interpretive approach to understand its impacts on education, the economy, and socio-cultural practices. The researchers used in-depth open-ended interviews for data collection. The sample size of the study consisted of twenty-four students i.e. six each from FATA University, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Preston University, and University of Peshawar. The primary data were analyzed by using the thematic analysis technique. The results reveal that there are divergent beliefs and superstitions about the prevention and presence of coronavirus. These included conspiracies about physicians and hospitals as death houses, and social distancing being a violation of cultural norms and values. The major impacts are observed on education, economy, psychological wellbeing, and socio-cultural practices. This study provides a roadmap for policymakers and future scholars to understand socio-cultural, educational, economic, and psychological problems that emerged due to COVID-19 Pandemic.</em></p> Jan Alam Akhtar Munir Nauman Tahir Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-05-08 2021-05-08 4 2 211 221 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss2-2021(211-221) The Juxtaposition of Antithetical Forces in the Fault in Our Stars by John Green https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/680 <p><em>This research paper seeks to study the juxtaposition of antithetical forces in the text The Fault in Our Stars penned down by John Green. The research </em><em>centers</em><em> on the characters' quest for finding an answer to the meaninglessness, attempts for filling the void, facticity, existential angst, and ultimate despair in the framework of the philosophy of 'Existentialism' posited by Jean-Paul Sartre. All the major characters in the novel are cancer patients, living a dismal and distressing life under the looming shadow of death. In an existential vein, the protagonists set out on a journey of self-exploration and choose to eke out a momentary optimism from their pessimistic situations. While battling with the terminal disease, Hazel Grace Lancaster and Augustus Waters engage in an emotional liaison that becomes a redeeming force in their traumatized existence. This research will study how love becomes a life force, an antithetical force juxtaposed with death and devastation. The transience becomes an impetus of change from despair to</em> <em>fulfillment</em><em> as the protagonists experience infinity in an ephemeral togetherness and </em><em>find</em><em> a meaning of life in empathy and </em><em>love.</em></p> Sarwat Javed Qamar Hussain Asima Abdul-Rehman Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-05-08 2021-05-08 4 2 205 210 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss2-2021(205-210) Experiencing Higher Education by Afghan Refugees: A Case study from Pakistan https://www.sjesr.org.pk/ojs/index.php/ojs/article/view/648 <p><em>The future of refugees in different countries is uncertain. They need support to provide hope for a successful future. Young refugees have their perspectives on the reflection of their personal experiences, needs, accessibility to services, and relevant opportunities. It is a common observation that most of the refugees remain silent regarding their experiences, feelings, and wishes during the journey of arrival in a new country. Nowadays, the voices of young refugees have been penned downed in literature; heard by practitioners, and by those who are involved in policymaking. For the current study, the objectives were to explore the experiences faced by Afghan refugees during their journey for higher education in Pakistan. This was a qualitative study and interview protocol was adopted as a tool for the collection of data. Data was collected through interviews with refugees’ students by the researcher. 20 students were selected through purposive sampling technique from four higher education institutions of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa in which 17 students were interviewed. Thematic analysis was done, and themes were generated from interviews. Through this study, it was recommended that the implementation of educational policies for refugees may be checked by the higher authorities so that young refugees may be facilitated in the journey of higher education.</em></p> Dr. Sadia Dilshad Dr. Rukhsana Durrani Sehrish Javed Copyright (c) 2021 sjesr 2021-05-08 2021-05-08 4 2 196 204 10.36902/sjesr-vol4-iss2-2021(196-204)