English as Medium of Instruction at Primary Level: Problems Faced by Teachers and Students

  • Mushtaq Ahmad Tanoli PhD Scholar, Department of Education, Hazara University Mansehra
  • Muhammad Ilyas Khan Associate Professor, Department of Education, Hazara University Mansehra
  • Muhammad Iqbal Majoka Professor, Department of Education, Hazara University Mansehra
Keywords: EMI, Primary School Teachers, Primary School Students, Problems Faced in Learning and Teaching


This study was conducted to investigate problems faced by teachers and students in the teaching-learning process using English as the medium of instruction at the primary level. The study explored the teachers’ competencies and students' abilities needed regarding the use of English as a medium of instruction. A survey research design was used to conduct the study. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 380 randomly selected teachers of 350 primary schools of HazaraChi-Square Chi Square Goodness of Fit Test was used for the data analysis. Findings revealed that most primary school teachers found it difficult to teach different subjects using English as medium of instruction. Teachers did not seem to be able to provide a suitable learning environment for students in the EMI context. In comparison to students who did not seem to face substantial issues in understanding their lessons through EMI, teachers faced more difficulties in the effective use of EMI for their teaching. This could be linked to their lack of teachers’ training for an EMI teaching environment. The study has important implications as the medium of instruction conundrum does not seem to go away in the Pakistani school education context in general and at the primary level of education in particular.