Inclusive Education in Azad Jammu and Kashmir: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Secondary Schools

  • Dr. Nazir Haider Shah Chairman, Department of Education, University of Kotli, AJ&K
  • Dr. Muhammad Naqeeb ul Khalil Shaheen Lecturer, Department of Education, University of Kotli, AJ&K
  • Dr. Sadaf Zamir Ahmed Assistant Professor, Department of Humanities, Education and Psychology, Air University Islamabad
Keywords: Inclusive Education, Secondary Schools, Azad Jammu and Kashmir


Inclusive education represents the concern of the entire school and is committed to providing quality education to all students in the most effective way, so that special education and general education are consistent. The study aimed to analyze inclusive education in Azad Jammu and Kashmir. The study was descriptive in nature and a cross-sectional survey was applied to collect the data. All 538 secondary school teachers and headteachers of District Pooch were the population of the study. A stratified random sampling technique was used to select the sample. The researcher selected 185 secondary school teachers and 45 head teachers through a proportionate stratified random sampling technique as a sample. A questionnaire for teachers and headteachers was used as a research instrument in this study. Data were collected through personal visits and postal service. Data were analyzed through mean scores and standard deviation. Based on analysis it was found that inclusive education provides an opportunity for the enjoyment and implementation of full human rights without any discrimination because inclusive education allows understanding individual differences. It is recommended that the school Education Department of Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJ&K) may introduce inclusive education at the district and tehsil level. Further, they need to plan for all teachers and headteachers to provide awareness about inclusive education.