Empirical Evaluation of Art and Design Students’ Online Assessments: A Case of Construct Validity Analysis at STEP

  • Gouhar Pirzada MPhil Scholar, University of Management & Technology (UMT), Lahore
  • Dr. Fariha Gul Assistant Professor, University of Management & Technology (UMT), Lahore
  • Saima Yaqub Onaizah Colleges, Saudi Arabia
Keywords: Online Assessments, Construct Validity, Art & Design, Empirical Evaluation, Learning Outcomes


Educational institutions are bound to take online assessments due to pandemics, which drives the need to identify the perceived satisfaction of both teachers and students about the effectiveness of this process. The current study aims to explore perceptions of Art & Design students and teachers since the issue becomes even more complex due to the practical nature of these subjects and assessments. A total of 157 students participated in this research study, whereas the data is collected through convenient sampling. The data from teachers was collected through a focus group discussion. The purposive sampling process was used for this purpose. A self-developed survey instrument was used to collect data with an alpha value of .73. The results of the survey indicate the satisfaction of students with the process and effectiveness of online assessment. Demographic analysis includes current qualifications (mean=2.69), previous qualifications (mean=.41), current working status of students (mean=.96), and students enjoying any scholarships (mean=.39) etc. The data collected through focus group discussion was studied through thematic analysis techniques. The results of the study promised to help in designing and implementing strategies when conducting online assessments particularly for Art & Design qualifications.