Impact of L2 Orthography on Reading Accuracy of L1: An Evidence from the Children of Grade 3

  • Dr. Ammara Farukh Assistant Professor, University of Education, Lahore, 54000, Pakistan
  • Dr. Syed Shujaat Ali Assistant Professor / Chairman, Department of English, Kohat University of Science & Technology, Kohat
  • Dr. Nadia Gilani Assistant Professor, Department of Teacher Education, University of Okara, Okara, 56300, Pakistan
Keywords: L2 Decoding Exposure, L1 Reading Accuracy, Cross-Linguistic Transfer, Opaque Orthography


The present research focused on investigating the impact of increased exposure to second language orthography (English), through adopting it as a medium of instruction, on reading accuracy in L1. This was expected that increased exposure to L2 might support L1 reading accuracy. The sample of the study was 8-9 years old grade, 3 children. The children were selected from Private sector Urdu, and English medium schools located in an underdeveloped district of Punjab, Pakistan. Although the students were highly exposed to Urdu orthography, yet it could not have the advantage to get better reading accuracy in Urdu. Meanwhile, the children at English medium schools scored much higher in reading accuracy in Urdu. This better performance by the children from English medium schools might be a positive transfer of reading skills in a second language to reading skills in the first language.