Development and Validation of Module for Teaching Human Rights at Higher Education Level

  • Haroon Ur Rashid PhD Scholar, Department of Education, University of Sargodha
  • Ashfaque Ahmad Shah PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of Education, University of Sargodha
  • Dr. Muhammad Sarwar Professor, Department of Education, University of Sargodha
Keywords: Teaching Module, Human Rights, Human Rights Education, Teaching of Human Rights, Higher Education


The study focused on the development and validation of modules for teaching Human Rights (HRs). The researchers developed modules consisted of nine units, based on previous modules and literature. One group pre-test-post-test (pre-experimental) design was used to validate the module. A Self-reported 5-point Likert scale (22-item) was developed for pre- and post-test assessment. Forty-seven (47) final year students of BS education were pre-tested, 27 hours treatment was given to them through the teaching of Human Rights Values (HRVs) by using Modular Approach (MA), and again tested. Data were analyzed by applying a paired sample t-test. A significant difference was found in students’ attitudes towards learning HRs before and after the treatment. The mean gain score of the learners was higher on the post-test as compared to that of on pre-test. Hence, it is concluded that the module for teaching HRs has been proved to be valid and effective. Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan may recommend a separate course on Human Rights Education (HRE) at BS level, based on MA. Special training to use this module and the assessment tool to university teachers may be arranged by either the local authorities at the universities or the National Academy of Higher Education (NAHE) by HEC Islamabad-Pakistan.


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